1. . Gis.wwf.mn.
3. se a health crisis in Mongolia? Evidence
from age- and sex-specific mortality
trends (19652009)", in J. Dierkes (ed.)
Change in Democratic Mongolia: Social
Relations, Health, Mobile Pastoralism and
as Siberian prawn (exopalaemon modestus) in Lake Buir.
Main article: Demographics of Mongolia
Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city of Mongolia
In settlements, many families live in ger districts
Mongolia's total population as of Januar
freedoms came to the forefront.
A new law on press freedom, drafted with help from international
NGOs on August 28, 1998 and enacted on January 1, 1999,
paved the way for media reforms. The Mongolian media
currently consists of around 300 print and b
introduced in 1992, and the "People's Republic" was dropped
from the country's name. The transition to market economy has
often been rocky; during the early 1990s the country had to deal
with high inflation and food shortages. The first e
1. Jump up^ Bawden
2. World Factbook. Retrieved 2013-06-28.
3. Jump up^ "Mongolia Climate - Retrieve
the average temperatures and rains in
Mongolia & in Ulaan baatar".
4. Jump up^ "Country Nicknames: Top 40
best nation aliases".
5. Jump up^ "Nomadic tra
) and Daurian pearl oyster (dahurinaia dahurica) in the Onon/
. Korean has gained popularity as tens of thousands
of Mongolians work in South Korea.
Interest in Chinese, as the language of the other neighbouring
power, has been growing.[citation neede
Mongolia who did not fulfill Russian demands to perform terror
against Mongolians were executed by Russians,
including Peljidiin Genden and Anandyn Amar. The Stalinist
purges in Mongolia, which began in 1937, killed more than 30,000
people. Choibalsan die
2. Jump up^ Michael Jerryson, Mongolian
Buddhism: The Rise and Fall of the
Sangha, (Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books,
3. Jump up^ "Mongolia
Religion". Michigan State University.
Retrieved January 24, 2015.
4. Jump up^ Sik, Ko Swan
1. & Co. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.
2. Jump up^ "Mongolia: Essential
information". guardian.co.uk. London.
November 22, 2006. Retrieved March
3. Jump up^ Han, Jae-hyuck (May 5,
2006). "Today in Mongolia: Everyone can
speak a few words of Korean". O
Olympic gold medal in the men's 100-kilogram class of judo.
Amateur boxing has been practised in Mongolia since 1948.
Mongolian olympic boxing national team was founded in 1960.
Communist government of Mongolia banned boxing during the
versions. He polled 10% to Mitt Romney's 20%, but in the same
poll with Romney removed from the list, Carson polled 11% to Jeb
Bush's 14%. The Wall Street Journal mentioned that the
Draft Carson Committee had chairmen in all of Iowa's 99
Mongol Empire, Mongolia under Yuan rule, Northern Yuan
dynasty, Dzungar Khanate, and Mongolia under Qing rule
See also: List of medieval Mongol tribes and clans, List of Mongol
states, and List of Mongol rulers
This map shows the boundary of the 13th-cent
700 large and small monasteries in Outer Mongolia; their
115,000 monks made up 21% of the population. Apart from the
Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, there were 13 other reincarnating high
lamas, called 'seal-holding saints' (tamgatai khutuktu), in Outer
1. Jump up^ "Forget The BRICs: Citi's
Willem Buiter Presents The 11 "3G"
Countries That Will Win The
Future". Business Insider. February 22,
2011. Retrieved 2013-06-28.
2. Jump up^ Jeffs, Luke (February 12,
2007). "Mongolia earns a sporting chance
practices of the
High end southern part of Ulaanbaatar valued for clean air in
Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on
herding and agriculture, although development of extensive
mineral deposits of copper, coal, molybdenum, t
In the late 19th century, painters
layers of felt were replaced by stone, brick, beams and planks,
and became permanent.
Chultem distinguished three styles in traditional Mongolian
architecture: Mongolian, Tibetan and Chinese as well as
became known as the Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan, the
grandson of Genghis Khan. He set up his capital in presentday Beijing. After more than a century of power, the Yuan was
replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368, and the Mongol court fled
to the north. A
1. , Charles (1968): The Modern History of
Mongolia.Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 194
2. Jump up^ Thomas E. Ewing, "Russia,
China, and the Origins of the Mongolian
People's Republic, 19111921: A
Reappraisal", in: The Slavonic and East
European Review, Vol. 5
collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and
resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during
the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.
In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in
Mongolia, being further le
a sizable trade deficit. The Economistpredicted this trade deficit of
14% of Mongolia's GDP would transform into a surplus in 2013.
Mongolia was never listed among the emerging market countries
until February 2011 when Citigroup analysts determined Mo
At 1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the world's 18thlargest country (after Iran). It is significantly larger than the nextlargest country, Peru. It mostly lies between
latitudes 41 and 52N (a small area is north of 52), and
longitudes 87 and
2. Jump up^ Givaandondogiin
Purevsambuu (2006). Mongolia.
Montsame News Agency.
p. 46. ISBN 978-99929-0-627-9.
3. Jump up^ "National Statistical Office:
Statistical Yearbook 2002, p. 39.
"Villages" in this case refers to
settlements that are not part o
A new constitution was
causing very cold temperatures while slopes of mountains are
much warmer due to the effects of temperature
inversion (temperature increases with altitude).
In winter the whole of Mongolia comes under the influence of
the Siberian An
During the state socialist period, education was one of the areas
of significant achievement in Mongolia. Illiteracy was virtually
eliminated, in part through the use of seasonal boarding schools
for children of nomadic families. Funding to thes
century, Altan Khan of the Tmed, a grandson of Dayan Khan
but not a hereditary or legitimate
autonomy, being administered by the hereditary Genghisid
khanates of Tusheet Khan, Setsen Khan, Zasagt Khan and Sain
Noyon Khan. The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu of Mon
1. "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual
Executive and Mixed Authority
Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of
International Relations and Pacific
Studies. United States: University of
California, San Diego. Archived from the
original (PDF) on August 19, 2008.
the Communist censorship. It was followed by Mungunhurhree,
Ineemseglel, Urgoo, etc., carving out the path for the genre in the
harsh environment of Communist ideology. Mungunhurhree
and Haranga were to become the pioneers in the Mongolia's
heavy rock mus
Mongolia's first ever
Mongolia holds many traditional festivals throughout the
year. Naadam Festival is the largest festival, celebrated in every
town and village across the country. It features three sporting
events: wrestling, archery and
Middle Ages to early 20th century
To eliminate the threat posed by Ungern, Bolshevik
Russia decided to support establishing a communist Mongolian
government and army. This Mongolian army took the Mongolian
part of Kyakhta from Chinese force
thirds of occupational disease in Mongolia is dust induced
chronic bronchitis or pneumoconiosis.
Average childbirth (fertility rate) is around 2.251.87 per
woman (2007) and average life expectancy is 68.5 years (2011).
Infant mortality is