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Selection of the appropriate lag length is necessary for the ARDL bounds testing
approach to cointegration because the calculation of the F-statistic is sensitive to any lag order.
To determine the optimal number of lags to be included in the estimation o
joint significance was tested using the Wald-coefficient test. To ensure the goodness of fit
of the ARDL model, relevant diagnostic and stability test were conducted. The diagnostic tests
examined the normality, serial correlation, ARCH and heteroscedasti
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Kenya and also verify the impact of policy reforms on the causality between agricultural
growth and economic growth.
Table 1: Sectoral Shares of Gross Domestic Products
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 target population25
Table 3.2 sample size.26
Table 4.0 Return Rate30
Table 4.1 Reliability Analysis
Table 4.2 Demographic Information of Dairy farmers. Error:
Reference source not found
Table 4.3 Demographic Information of coopera
managers and farmers. As such, one of the objectives of this study was to find out the effects of
management activities in the cooperative operation. According to the findings majority of the
managers agreed that their management have improved cooperative
Marshalls dictum that the causes which determine the economic progress of nations to
the study of international trade (Marshall, 1890). Although theoretically the importance of
international trade in economic growth of a country has long been recognized,
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework.20
Figure 4.1 cost of market information.
Figure 4.2 farm gate price
Figure 4.3 availability of preservative facilities.
Figure 4.5 Loss from inadequate preservative facilities per annum44
Figure 4.6 Cooper
least sales turnover with a mean of Kshs 213,200 and a standard deviation of 116,624.183.This
may be lack of skilled marketing department and low area of market covered
4.9.8 Profits registered by each cooperative.
In order to determine the profitability
marketing, distribution and supply of dairy produce in Kenya". Hence the KDB has broad
powers over the organization of the dairy marketing system in Kenya. However, over the years,
the KDB has limited its operations primarily to the regulation of business
series, respectively. The results of ZA structural break trended unit root tests are reported
in Table 3. The results indicate that the test results rejected the unit root null hypothesis of no
Table 3: ZA Unit Root Test with a single s
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livestock for their livelihood. The District is also a leading producer of milk and beef. Hence,
the majority of the people in the rural areas are engaged in agricultural activities either growing
crops for consumption or for sale. While others rear lives
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Journal of Economics and Business, 9 (4).
More than 10 years
If you dont sell your milk in the cooperative, why did you choose the other market?
Cooperative is far away
Delayed payments by cooperative
Cooperatives are poorly managed
Others (please specify) .
SECTION B: TRANSACTION
McMahan G. Esfahani H. S. and Squire L. (2009). Diversity in economic growth: global
insight and explanations. Global Development Ntework Series; U.K and Nortampton.
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politically influenced, (0%) of the cooperative managers agree on this. This study finding agrees
with Ngethe (1998) who found out that there always existed a gap between what the top
management and lower cadre views of the potential of Regional Developme
The trace test
95% critical value
es: (*) denotes rejection of the null hypothesis of unit root for the ADF test, rejection of the null hypothesis of unit root for the PP
and rejection of the null hypothesis of stationarity for the KPSS at 10 percent level of significance.
) denotes rejec
may be due to the introduction of certain policies concerning investment and import substitution,
which could not lead to higher economic growth and increased level of economic growth on
liberalization of trade. Another possible reason could be the increa
market covered. The least performing cooperative was found to be cooperative 5 with a mean
distribution of 150.40 and standard deviation of 61.813.This may be attributed to poor facilities
such as insufficient storage facilities, poor transport network, l
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relationship-specific if its value in any other use is significantly lower. This decrease in value
creates the quasi-rents that attract opportunistic behaviour.
Royer (1999) mentions four different forms of asset specificity, namely: (1) site specificity