Thermodynamic
Variables and Relations
Weve learnt the Laws of
Thermodynamics.
How are we going to use them in
practical problems?
Typical problems in the
applications of Thermodynamics
H2 gas kept at 18 C in a 20L steel cylinder
is at a pressure of 10 atm
Thermodynamics
Part II
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Statistical thermodynamicsThe Microscopic theory
Introduction
The classical theory of thermodynamics leaves certain questions unanswered:
The statistical theory can answer all these.
The Macrostates and Microstates of a the
Thermodynamics
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Chapter 7 The MaxwellBoltzmann statistics
In view of the examples in 4.3 of Chapter 6 where particles (such as dice or
tokens) are not real particles, energy was not assigned to individual particles.
However, in statistical thermod
Thermodynamics
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Introduction
What is thermodynamics? Thermodynamics is one the four fundamental fields of
theoretical physics, which are :
1. Theoretical mechanics (developed from Newton mechanics)
2. Electrodynamics (developed from electromagneti
Thermodynamics
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Chapter 5 Thermodynamic properties of materials
Introduction:
The thermodynamic properties of materials are intensive quantities which are
specific to a given material, such as the specific heats, cV , and c P of materials , introd
Thermodynamics
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To find the entropy change of this small 'universe', we add up the entropy changes
for its constituents: the surrounding room, and the ice+water.
dS universe = dS system + dS surroundings =
dQ
dQ
>0
273K 300 K
The total entropy cha
AP3190/AP3290
The Structure of Thermodynamics
1
How to start approaching this useful
subject?
Do you know cooking involves principles of
thermodynamics?
2
How to start approaching this useful
subject?
Do you want to know how turbo-charged
engine works?
SEE 3101 Thermosciences for Energy Conversion II
Assignment 1
Due: 21/09/2016 (Wednesday) at 3 pm
Late submission: 23/09/2016 (Friday) at 5 pm. 20% will be taken off from the total score
Note: Please keep the units for all the data during your calculation
Sorry to say that I have made a incorrect comment during the experiment about the
"anomaly of data point at high flow rate". During the experiment, you have found
that head losses for high flow rate tests are constantly being way below expected
level (the
SEE 2001 Electromagnetic Principles for Energy
Engineers
Assignment 2
Due on 30/9/2015 (Wed) before 5pm
Late submission: 2/10/2015 (Fri) before 5pm, 20% will be taken off from your total score.
No work will be accepted after the late submission deadline
G
Safety Rules and Regulations
Eating, drinking and smoking are prohibited in laboratories.
All unnecessary personal belongs (bags, clothes etc.) must be stored in
the lockers provided.
Laboratory coats and safety goggles must be worn in the laboratory a
SEE2101 Thermosciences for Energy Conversion I
Heat Transfer Experiment
Introduction
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermosciences that concerns the exchange of thermal energy
(heat) between physical systems. A heat exchanger allows the exchange of heat
SEE3103 Energy Efficiency for Buildings
Assignment 1
Due 26th September 2016
Problem 1
An air-cooled 10-ton chiller system uses refrigerant R-407C as a working fluid. The
high-side pressure and low-side pressure are monitored by pressure gauges and the
re
SEE2101 Thermosciences for Energy Conversion I
Vapour-Compression Refrigeration
Objective
To describe the working principle of a vapour-compression refrigeration unit.
To investigate the effects of the refrigerant compressor speed and the water flow rate
SEE2101 Thermosciences for Energy Conversion I
Fluid Flow in Pipes
Introduction
In this experiment, you will study the head losses (pressure drops) of water flow in pipes of
different characteristics such as the diameter of the pipe and the roughness of t
Thermodynamics
3.3.2
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Analysis of some thermodynamic cycles(heat engine cycle)
Any heat engine cycles (thermodynamic cycle) can be constructed from the combination
of the above four processes discussed in 3.3. Here are some engines and their effic
Thermodynamics
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Chapter 2 The First law of thermodynamics
2.1
Some concepts:
thermodynamic Process, Quasi-static process, Reversible
process
A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic evolution of a system
proceeding from an initial s
Thermodynamics
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T
P S
2.3. Cooling by isentropic expansion (adiabatic expansion) process:
It has been pointed out earlier that thermodynamic processes can be mathematically
described by a partial derivative under specific conditions.
isentropi
Thermodynamic
Variables and Relations
Weve learnt the Laws of
Thermodynamics.
How are we going to use them in
practical problems?
Typical problems in the
applications of Thermodynamics
H
gas kept at 18C in a 20L steel cylinder is
at a pressure of 10 atm.
Equilibrium in
Thermodynamic
Systems
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
in a Nutshell
General Criterion for Equilibrium
provide the basis for the calculation of
phase diagrams, chemical equilibria, the
role played by capillary effects, defects in
crystals, etc.
T
Equilibrium in
Thermodynamic
Systems
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
in a Nutshell
General Criterion for Equilibrium
provide the basis for the calculation of
phase diagrams, chemical equilibria, the
role played by capillary effects, defects in
crystals, etc.
T
Unary Heterogeneous Systems
The importance of Studying Phase
Diagrams
The study of all classes of phase
transformations in unary and
multicomponent systems is important
because these processes control the
microstructure of materials
Controlling microstr
Statistical thermodynamicsThe Microscopic theory
The classical theory of thermodynamics leaves certain questions
unanswered:
The statistical theory can answer all these.
We have learned about thermal energy, how it is stored at
the microscopic level, and
BoseEinstein statistics
AP3290
BoseEinstein (B-E) Distribution
Bosons, unlike fermions, are not subject to the Pauli
exclusion principle: an unlimited number of particles
may occupy the same state at the same time
This explains why, at low temperatures,
Thermodynamics
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Chapter 4
Thermodynamic Entropy
Introduction:
In science, the term "entropy", which means transformation in Greek, has two
distinct interpretations: one is the thermodynamic entropy in the field of physics, the
other is information