Chapter 2: Digitization of Sound
Acoustics pressure waves are converted to electrical signals
by use of a microphone. The output signal from the
microphone is an analog signal, i.e., a continuous-valued
voltage waveform with horizontal axis representing t
Chapter 5: Music Synthesis Technologies
For the presentation of sound, music synthesis is as important to multimedia
system as for computer graphics to the presentation of image. In this
chapter, the basic principles of music synthesis technologies will b
Chapter 6: Room Acoustics and 3D Sound Processing
Sound in rooms
The shapes, dimensions and wall's surface structure of rooms have effect on
sounds. How these affect sound is the subject of room acoustics.
A process of sound
perception in a
Chapter 3: Digital Audio Processing and Data Compression
Review of number system
2s complement sign and magnitude binary
The MSB of a data word is reserved as a sign bit, 0 is
positive, 1 is negative.
The rest of the bits of the data words represent the
Chapter 1: Introduction to digital audio
Applications: audio players (e.g. MP3), DVD-audio, digital
audio broadcast, music synthesizer, digital amplifier and
equalizer, 3D sound synthesis
Properties of Sound
Sound is what we call the air pressure variat
Chapter 4: Audio Coding
Lossy and lossless audio compression
Traditional lossless data compression methods usually don't work well on
audio signals if applied directly. Many audio coders are lossy coders, e.g.
ADPCM, MP3 and MPEG AAC coders. However, for
CS3402 Tutorial No. 8 (Week13):
1. Show that the two-phase locking (2PL) protocol ensures (conflict) serializability.
(hint: you may prove this by showing that any non-serializable schedule S is not 2PL.
E.g., assume such a cycle exists: T0 -> T1 -> T2 ->