Sec$on 5.3
Mathema$cal Induc$on II
Mathematical Induction II
Mathematical induction makes knowledge of the
general pattern a matter of mathematical
certainty rather than vague conjecture.
Example 1 Proving a Divisibility Property
Use mathematic

Rule-based expert system
Similar to classifier systems
In early seventies, Newell and Simon from CMU proposed a
production system model, the foundation of the modern rulebased expert systems.
based on the idea that humans solve problems by applying
their

Swarm Intelligence
Slides created by ICO System
A social insect colony is.
Flexible: the colony can respond to internal perturbations
and external challenges
Robust: tasks are completed even if some individuals fail
Decentralized: there is no central cont

Robotics
Hardware Agents - Robots
Rodney Brooks MIT AI Lab - http:/www.csail.mit.edu/
Problems with traditional AI
Brittleness Deep Blue
We will look at 2 of MITs robots
Genghis
Cog
Genghis
6 legged robot
How to we get robot to walk
Brooks develo

Introduction, or what is fuzzy thinking?
Experts rely on common sense when they solve
problems.
How can we represent expert knowledge that uses
vague and ambiguous terms in a computer?
Fuzzy logic is not logic that is fuzzy, but logic that is
used to desc

Cellular Automata
Defn: A cellular automaton is an array of
identically programmed automata, or "cells",
which interact with one another.
The arrays usually form either a 1-dimensional
string of cells, a 2-D grid, or a 3-D solid.
Qualities of CA:
STAT

Learning - Classifiers
John Holland wondered if we could get computers to adapt on
an individual level
Learn
Felt that artificial organisms should be able to classify
environment and act on what they classified
Classifiers are rules
In an if-then (co

Intelligent Agents
What is an intelligent agent?
Two general types
Software web crawlers, spiders, viruses, virtual assistants,
etc.
Hardware robots
Software Intelligent Agents
Researched by a wide variety of companies
AT&T, BT, Daimler-Benz, HP, IB

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
To say r is a sufficient condition for s
means that the occurrence of r is sufficient
to guarantee the occurrence of s.
1
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
2
Chapter 3
The Logic of Quan4ed
Statements
Sec4on 3.1

Factorial and n Choose r Notation
An important use for the factorial notation is in
calculating values of quantities, called n choose
r, that occur in many branches of mathematics,
especially those connected with the study of
counting techniques and prob

Trent University
COIS 3820H
Fall 2016 WEB
Assignment #1
Marked out of 55
1. You are a code breaker in the Second World War and youve just intercepted the following Enigma message:
C
I.VIII.V
XYZ AAA AB CZ DM GP LX
RJHO STNZ YYCT FPLS VMYK XICJ TMIU ZORT T