Chapter 1: Cells and Genomes
1 The hereditary information in a fertilized egg cell determines the nature of the whole multicellular
2 All cells store their hereditary information in the same linear chemical code: DNA
a phosphate + sugar = sugar p
FIGURE17-7The three phases of in vitro G-actin polymerization.
Kinesin-1 Powers Anterograde Transport of
Vesicles Down Axons Toward the (+)
Model of kinesin-1-catalyzed vesicle transpo
Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and
biochemical function of organisms, and serves as the foundation of
human medicine. As a discipline, it connects biology, medicine, and
health, and creates a framework for und
DNA is the genetic
material of life
2 nucleotide chains
held together by H bonds
Anti-parallel 5 3
4 nucleotide bases
A and G are purines
C and T are pyrimidines
Adenine (A) pairs with
Guanine (G) pairs with
An Introduction to the Human Body
science of structure/morphology
relationships revealed by dissection (cutting apart)
Advanced imaging techniques
science of cellular, tissue, organ and body functions
normal adult physiology is s
Emerging Issues in
Instructor: Randy W Cohen
Office hours: TR 1000-1100AM
Demonstrate an understanding of basic concepts,
experimental approaches, and the therapeutic potential of
What is a Cell?
Cells are the structural and functional units of every living being. An
organism may be unicellular (bacteria) or multicellular (such as humans).
There are two general categories of cells: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
An eukaryotic cell con
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny Ernst Haeckel, 1868
Definition study of the origin and development of an
Prenatal period (human):
Embryonic period first 8 weeks
Fetal period remaining 30 weeks
Stem Cell History
1998 - Researchers first extract stem cells from human
1999 - First Successful human transplant of insulin-making
cells from cadavers.
2001 - President GW Bush restricts federal funding for
embryonic stem-cell researc
Embryonic Stem Cells (ePS)
embryonic pluripotent stem cells
What are Stem Cells?
cells are different from all other
cells in the body.
Stem cells have 2 distinct properties:
They are unspecialized cells that are
capable of renewing (regenerating)
Cell Biology 380
Chemistry of Cell Biology
Chemistry -> Biology
Chemistry - atoms,
Structure -> Function
What is your function here on Earth?
How does your structure affect your function?
FIGURE 8-20 Model of transporter passage through an NPC.
FIGURE 13-33 Nuclear pore complex at different levels of resolution.
FIGURE 8-21 Remodeling of mRNPs during nuclear export.
FIGURE 13-26 Targeting
sequences in imported
Cell Junctions are connections between one
cell and its extracellular environment
Connections between one cell and a
Three Categories of Cell Junctions
Junctions that prevent (occlude)
COMPRISED OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS
Phosphate Head with or without other
Two Fatty Acid Chains
Phospholipid Movement within
the Cell Membrane
FLUIDITY OF THE MEMBRANE
What is Cell Biology
What is Biology?
Cell Biology focuses on the Cell
Recall the Hierarchy of Life
Two major components of the Cell Theory:
1. Living organisms are comprised of a Cell or Cells
2. New Cells come from Pre-exi
Required for Cell Communication
Signal Molecule Released by One or More
Receptor to bind to Signal on Target Cells
(Cells that can Respond to the Signal)
Cellular Response by Target Cell
of a Channel
Formation of Secon
Transport Across Membranes
How Ions and Molecules Enter and Exit
What type of Molecules Pass Directly
Through Phospholipid Membranes?
Will pass through the membranes:
Many Hydrophobic molecules
Water only in very small amounts
Some small hydrophi
Cell Experimental Techniques
How to You Study the Cell?
Cells are Microscopic
Cells are Clear
Cellular Components Even Smaller
Many Different Types of Molecules with Different Functions
Magnification versus Resolution
10 X Ocu
Course Information: Section Number 17374
TTh 9-10:15 am
Instructor: Dr. C. Kay-Nishiyama
Office : Chaparral Hall 5219 (CR 5219)
Email: [email protected]
Office Hours: I will
Introduction to Cell Biology
The cell is the basic functional and structural unit of life.
Life begins with cells
Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow developed the cell
theory that states:
All organisms are composed of one or more cells.