14. What is the coefcient of water when the equation is balanced?
8i (on ), r 3.804 -> e- (soq ), + "to
% silo"); l" 5ngsoq A 6356301); 4" 6 H1O
15' A Chldride 0f tungsten (W) contains 63. 6%. What' is the formula of the
compound? 3 6
w W 9
Chem 180 Midterm Review:
1. What is the correct name of CuO?) Gaffer (I) 0x: dc
2. What' IS the law of multiple proportions? a! W 70 14," man, man one WW 7715 146th
- Men 1 elm 71 mi oF-me dmm-Iml-mb/fun n 130e fofM
3. What' IS the name of Mg(HC03)2. '7 0
21)5uppose the reaction is carried out starting with 52 g of Ca3(PO4)2 and 37 g of
H2804. Which substance is the limiting reactant?
"22)A mixture if KC] and KNO3 is 44. 2% potassium by mass. The percent of KCl' m
the mixture is?
"23) A 3.00 g sample of an
CHEM 180: Midterm Review
(50 questions, 4 points each)
Q. What is the Law of Multiple Proportions: .
when 2 electrons combine with each other to form more than one compound, the weight
of one element that combine with a fixed weight of the other are in ra
Practice questions for Chapter 4
1. An unknown substance dissolves readily in water but not in benzene (a nonpolar solvent). Molecules of
what type are present in the substance?
A) neither polar nor nonpolar
C) either polar or nonpolar
Filaments of the
Ganglion layer of
the retina to the
nuclei of the
Name _ Period _ Date _
How Well Does a Punnett Square Predict Actual Ratios?
In this lab you will make predictions using Punnett Squares, and then use pennies to
simulate the crosses. The results from the Punnett square can then be compared
Sigma and Pi Bonding
Sigma bonding, ! , involves an
end-on overlap between orbitals.
Pi bonding, ! , involves a
sideways overlap of orbitals.
Hybrid orbitals overlap to form bond
Unhybridized p orbitals overlap to form bond
Group Activity #9a Key
SHOW ALL WORK
1. A line in the Lyman (ultraviolet) series of the hydrogen atom spectrum has a
wavelength of 9.50 x 10-8 m. It results from a transition from an upper level to n = 1.
What is the principal qu
Group Activity #4a
1. A 0.1000 g sample of an unknown compound, known to contain only carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen, was allowed to react completely with oxygen (excess oxygen available) to
form the products CO2 and H2O. The
The Composition of the Atom
Roentgen 1895 Discovery of X-Rays
Bequerel 1896 Discovered Radioactivity
1891 Worked on Radioactivity
Discovered Radium and
Thompson 1897 Discovery of the Electron
1910 Determined Charge of
Groups A (representative elements) Roman Numerals
Groups B (transition elements) Roman Numerals
Groups 1 - 18
2. Exchange Reactions (no change in oxidation number)
A. Double Displacement
(look at the net ionic equation and solubility rules)
a. Formation of an insoluble compound (metathesis)
BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) -> BaSO4 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq)
b. Formation of a mol
Group Activity #8
1. When 1.021 g of C6H12 was combusted in a bomb calorimeter, the temperature rose
from 25.0 C to 42.1 C. If the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 2504 J/C, what is the enthalpy
change when one mol of C6H12 i
A 0.1247g sample of vitamin C,
ascorbic acid, contains 0.0510g C,
0.0057g H, and 0.0680g O.
a.What is the empirical formula?
b. The molar mass is 176 g/mol. What
is the molecular formula?
Empirical Formula (continued)
Molarity, M, is the number of moles of
solute per Liter of solution
Molarity , M, is the number of moles of
solute per liter of solution
a.What is the molarity of a solution that
has 2.0 g NaOH in 500 mL of solution?
and Types of Compounds
- electrons that make up the bond are shared by the two atoms of the bond, e.g. C-C
represents a single bond (two electrons) shared by two carbon atoms
- covalent bon
Definitions and Review from Chem 100
Physical Properties - Properties of the substance alone
e.g. density, specific heat, color, mass
Chemical Properties Interaction between substances
e.g. reactive, inert, charged, explosive
Discovery of Neutron and Proton
Avagadros Number and the AMU
Isotopes and Atomic Weight
Avogadros Number and amu
Avogadro (1796 - 1856)
Avogadros number = 6.022 x 1023
The numbers serves
Covalent Bonding and Lewis Structures
Covalent Bond: Two atoms sharing a pair of
Paulings Electronegativity Scale
Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom in a
bond to attract electrons in the bond to itself.
Solubility and Intermolecular Forces
Solute- Solvent Interactions
Methanol is 100 % soluble in water miscible liquids
Ethanol is 100 % soluble in water
Propanol is 100 % soluble in water miscible liquids
London Dispersion Forces
Hydrogen Bonding Forces
(also called van der Waals force)
The London Force applies to atoms and nonpolar
It is a random, momentary
Unhybridized C Orbitals Predict the
Wrong Bonding & Geometry
Hybrid orbitals are a mixture
of atomic orbitals
Linear molecules have sp hybrids.
Trigonal planar molecules have sp2 hybrids.
Tetrahedral molecules have sp3 hybrids.
Simple Stoichiometry Problems
SnO2 (s) + 2 C (s) Sn (l) + 2 CO (g)
1.How many moles of CO can be made from 1.2
moles of SnO2 ?
2. How many moles of Sn can be made from 13
moles of carbon?
3.How many grams SnO2 is needed to completely
react with 14.4 g C ?
C6H5COOH benzoic acid
CuSO4 5 H2O
CaSO4 2 H2O
Simple Calculations Involving Grams, Moles, Molecules
1.How many moles are in 10.0 g carbon?
2. How many atoms are in 152 g o
and Quantum Theory
of the Atom
Properties of Light
The distance between peaks
The number of peaks that pass a certain point per second
Speed of Light, c
c = 2.99x10 8 m/sec