Ethical Theories :
The four ethical theories :
1)Aristotles Virtue Ethics :/
- Aristotle said that virtue is practical and the purpose of ethics is to become good
-He claims that the right course of action depends on the details of partic
Oaths Flash back :
-Imhotep (4700 years ago): Was a medicine man and the first known engineer and
-I will adopt the procedure which is my best judgment beneficial to my patients and not for
their injury or for any wrongful purp
Ethics Engineering Profession :
A professional Engineer is : /
1) Has Bachelors degree in engineering
2) Performs Engineering Work
3) A registered C.E or P.E
4) Acts in a morally responsible way while practicing engineering
How We View Ourselves : /
Engineers Obligation :
1) Obligation To society :/
a) Responsibility .
-Engineers foremost responsibility is to the public welfare.
-Engineers should approve designs that safe to life ,health and property of public.
Professional Rules of Conduct :/
Honesty and Integrity :/ Engineers should:
1) Admit their errors and not change the facts.
2) Advice the clients when they believe the project isnt successful.
3) Not accept and any outside employment to the dis
Methods For Analyzing Ethical Problems
Issues involved in understanding ethical problems
1) Factual Issues ; Gather facts and find the truth of the issue
-sometimes facts arent clear
was the gift offered or requested ?
2)Conceptual issues : involves meani
Soil Mechanics Chapter 2
Soil can be classified into :
1) Cohesionless :particles dont tend to stick together , Gravel , Sand , Silt
Gravel has particle sizes greater than 2 mm, sand range from 0.1 to 2mm , Silt from
0.005 to 0.1 mm
2)Cohesive; they are v
Soil Mechanics Chapter 1
Soil Particles are formed due to : 1) Weathering of Rocks
2) Decay of Vegetation
Over time , soil particles consolidate to become Rock.
The soil that results from a weathering process differs due to
a) Type of rock
b) The Weath
Datum : Level surface with respect to which the levels of points are measured or referred to , could be
arbitrary surface or a standard surface.
Bench Mark: Permanent or semi-permanent physical mark of known elevation .Its set as point of
reference to det
Surveying : is the art of determining the position of points on the surface of earth or beneath it in a
Levelling : is the art of determining the position of point a vertical plane.
Importance of Surveying :
-Surveying is a basic require