Components of machines, vehicles, and structures are
frequently subjected to repeated loads.
The resulting cyclic stresses can lead to microscopic
damage to the materials.
This microscopic damage can accumulate with
With elastic deformation, the strains are
proportional to the stress
After plastic deformation starts, the total
strain is the sum of the elastic strain (which
still obeys Hookes law) and the plastic strain
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF
strain & Stress
The two principal responses of materials
to external forces are deformation and
The deformation may be elastic, plastic,
or creep (time-dependent plastic
deformation). Fracture may o
Toughness is the energy absorbed in fracturing.
A fracture is described as ductile or brittle,
depending on the amount of deformation that
fracture usually starts by nucleation of voids in the
Elastic deformation is
reversible. When a body
deforms elastically under a
load, it will
revert to its original shape as
soon as the load is removed
Hookes Law for one Dimension
An isotropic material is one that has the same propert
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