25 Instruments for Optical Spectrometry
25A INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
(1) source of radiant energy
(2) wavelength selector
(3) sample container
(5) signal processor and readout
Fig. 25-1 components of
various types of instruments
for optical spec
24 Introduction to Spectrochemical Methods
Spectroscopic method: based on measurement of the electromagnetic radiation
produced or absorbed by analytes.
electromagnetic radiation: include -ray, X-ray, ultraviolet(UV), visible,
infrared(IR), microwave and
17 Complexation Reaction and Titrations
17A The Formation of Complexes
Ligand: an ion or a molecule that forms a covalent bond with a cation or a neutral
metal atom by donating a pair of electrons that are then share by the two.
water, ammonia and halide
15 Titration Curves for Complex Acid/Base Systems
(1) Two acids or two bases of different strength.
(2) An acid or a base that has two or more acids or bases of different strengths
(3) An amphiprotic substance
15A Mixtures of Strong and Weak Acids or Stro
14 Principles of Neutralization Titrations
14A. Solutions and Indicators for Acids/Base Titrations
14A-1 Standard Solution
Strong acids: HCl, HClO4, H2SO4.
Strong bases: NaOH, KOH.
14A-2 Acid/Base Indicator
6 Random Errors in Chemical Analysis
6A The Nature of Random Errors
6A-1 Random Error Sources?
Fig. 6-1 Three-dimensional
plot showing absolute error in
determination for four different
16 Application of Neutralization Titration
16A Reagents for Neutralization Titration
16A-1 Preparation of Standard Acid Solutions
Solution oh HCl, HClO4 and H2SO4 are stable indefinitely.
Restandardization is not required unless evaporation occurs.
5 Errors in Chemical Analyses
the same size samples are carried
through an analysis in exactly the
same way (2~5).
Fig. 5-1 Results from six replicate
determinations of iron in aqueous
samples of a standard solution
containing 20.0 ppm iron(II
7 Statistical Data Treatment and Evaluation
7A Confidence Intervals
7A-1 Finding the confidence interval when is known or s is a good
CI = x z
CI for = x
Confidence Levels for Various Values of z
(a) The millimole is the amount of an elementary species, such as an atom, an ion, a
molecule, or an electron. A millimole contains
(d) Parts per million, cppm, is