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CYRUS A RYANI,P h.D., .E., .E.
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Geotechnical Engineering
Applied
Soil Mechanics
and
Foundation Engineering
Volume I
CYRUS ARYANI, Ph.D., P.E., G.E.
California State University, Sacramento
Copyright 2002 by Cyrus Aryani
TXu 1-055-438
(Revised 2006)
PREFACE
Soils are the most common and t
APPENDIX A
Soil Mechanics Laboratory Forms and Tables
Triaxial Compression Test
A - 19
Unconfined Compression Test
A - 22
Copyright 2002 by Cyrus Aryani
Laboratory Report Format
1. Cover page
Experiment title
Name and name of partners
Course number and
SOIL IMPROVEMENT
Soil Compaction
Most sites do not have suitable soil conditions to directly build on. Many projects require
removal of soil from one place and its placement at another location. Some construction
projects require mass grading, which may c
CIVL 411
Soil Mechanics
Spring 2016
Jason Barnum, P.E.
LESSON 30
Subject: Active and Passive Lateral Earth Pressures as determined by Rankines theory
Objectives:
1. Determine Rankines active pressure and coefficient of Rankine's active earth
pressure
2. D
Soil Settlement - Consolidation
Consolidation analogy
Void ratio - pressure plots and associated clay
properties
Settlement of Sandy Soil vs. Clayey Soil
Immediate settlement (Se):
the settlement that occurs immediately after load application that is
CIVL 411
Soil Mechanics
Spring 2016
Jason Barnum, P.E.
LESSON 24 EXTRA CREDIT
Subject:
Rectangularly loaded area on the surface. Section 10.12 of Das.
Objectives:
Build an excel spreadsheet capable of determining the vertical stress at any depth and locat
Stress in Soils Caused by Surface Load
Influence Chart
Introduce Newmarks influence chart
Determine vertical stress increase due to
surface load using Newmarks influence chart
Newmarks Influence Chart
Book Figure 10.31
Priviously have (from circular loa
Soil Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
Types of foundations
Failure modes for shallow foundations
Soil bearing capacity based on Terzaghis formula
Effect of ground water
Common Types of Foundations
Shallow foundations:
The ratio between depth of
e
Factors Affecting Permeability
and
Permeability for Compacted Clay Soils
Directional variation of permeability
Equivalent permeability in stratified soils
Effect of compaction on permeability in clayey soils
Consideration of permeability for clay liner co
CIVL 411
Soil Mechanics
Spring 2016
Jason Barnum, P.E.
LESSON 35
Subject: Soil Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations (16.5-16.6)
Objectives:
1. Define allowable bearing capacity
2. Determine the general bearing capacity of a shallow footing based on ne
CIVL 411
Soil Mechanics
Spring 2016
Jason Barnum, P.E.
WORKSHEET 2, VOLUME-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS
Prove the following equations using the Key Volume-Weight Relationships from Table
3.1 and those discussed in class:
1. =
2. =
( )
Unit Weight - Volume Relationships
Relationships Among
(or ), , d (or d), e, w and Gs
Relationships Among
, d, n, w, and Gs
Variations of unit weight - volume relationships
Relative Density
Phase Diagram with Vs = 1
Text Figure 3.2, for deriving rel
CIVL 411
Soil Mechanics
Spring 2016
Jason Barnum, P.E.
LESSON 33
Subject: Slope Stability (15.7-15.14)
Objectives:
1. Introduce ordinary method of slices for stability analysis of finite slopes with circular
and general failure surfaces
2. Introduce Bisho
Effect of Seepage on Effective Stress
Effects of upward seepage on effective stress
Effects of downward seepage on effective stress
Critical hydraulic gradient for boiling
Seepage force and safety against heaving
Heaving controls
Effect of Seepage on Effe
Field Soil Compaction
Compaction equipment
Factors affecting field compaction
Specifications of field compaction
Determination of field unit weight
Special compaction techniques
Field Compaction Equipment
Sandy and clayey soils:
Smooth-wheel rollers (or
CIVL 411
Soil Mechanics
Spring 2016
Jason Barnum, P.E.
LESSON 31
Subject:
Braced Cuts for Open Trenches
Objectives:
1. Introduce construction technique for bracing against lateral earth pressures.
2. Determine active thrust on bracing systems for cuts
3.
Determination of Permeability
Laboratory determination of permeability
Constant-head test
Falling-head test
Empirical relations for permeability
Field determination of permeability
Pumping test from wells for unconfined aquifer
Pumping test from we
Laboratory Soil Compaction
Principles of soil compaction
Factors affecting soil compaction
Standard and modified Proctor test
Structure of compacted clay soil
Soil Compaction
Compaction is the densification of soil by removal
of air
Degree of compaction
Rankines Lateral Earth Pressure
Rankines active pressure
Coefficient of Rankines active earth Pressure
Rankines passive pressure
Coefficient of Rankines passive pressure
Diagrams for lateral pressure distribution
Cohesionless horizontal backfill
Cohesionl
Slope Stability
Method of Slices for slopes with circular and general
failure surfaces
Bishops Simplified Method of Slices
Mode of Circular and General Failure
Text figure 15.11
Methods of analysis:
(a) Slope failure (toe circle, slope circle)
1. Mass p
Soil Bearing Capacity for Shallow Foundations
Factor of Safety
Bearing Capacity Types
Example (Continued)
General Bearing Capacity
Additions to Terzaghis equation
Modification factors
Factor of Safety
Fs 3 is usually needed. There are two types of
allow
Stress in Soils Caused by Surface Load
Determine the increase in the vertical
component of stress in soil due to:
A point load on the surface
Line load on the surface
Strip load on the surface
Embankment load
Stress Increase Caused by a Point Load
Text fi
Unit Weight Relationships
Note: Please study and know these relationships. They will be integral to passing, not only the
CIVL 411 Exams, but also, the Professional Engineering Exams.
Worksheets 1 and 2 are available for additional practice with these rel
Flow Theory and Flow Nets in Isotropic Soil
Flow theory (Laplaces equation of continuity)
Methods of solution for flow
Flow net and flow net construction
Flow rate (seepage rate) calculation from flow nets
Steady flow in to the soil element at Point A:
La