2
Pin-jointed frames or trusses
2.1
Introduction
In problems of stress analysis we discriminate between two types of structure; in the first, the
forces in the structure can be determined by considering only its statical equilibrium. Such a
structure is s

24
The finite element method
24.1
Introduction
In this chapter the finite element method proper" will be described with the aid of worked
examples.
The finite element method is based on the matrix displacement method described in Chapter
23, but its descr

21
Thick circular cylinders, discs
and spheres
21.I
Introduction
Thin shell theory is satisfactory when the thickness of the shell divided by its radius is less than
1/30. When the thickness: radius ratio of the shell is greater than this, errors start to

Answers to further problems
1.4
(a) R , = 3.333 kN
(b) R , = 9 .6kN
(c) R , = 4.625 kN
1.5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Fab = 5 k N
Fob = - 5 k N
Fab = 4.17kN
Fob = -4.71 kN
Fob = - 4.71 kN
R, = 6.667kN
R , = 6.4 kN
R, = 3.375kN
Fa, = -8.66 kN
F a, = -8.66 kN
FaC

Preface
This new edition is updated by Professor Ross, and whle it retains much of the basic and
traditional work in Case & Chllvers Strength o Materials and Structures, it introduces modem
f
numerical techques, such as matrix and finite element methods.

Introduction
1.1
Introduction
Stress analysis is an important part of engineering science, as failure of most engineering
components is usually due to stress. The component under a stress investigation can vary from the
legs of an integrated circuit to th

23
Matrix methods of structural analvsis
23.1
Introduction
This chapter describes and applies the matrix displacement method to various problems in
structural analysis. The matrix displacement method first appeared in the aircraft industry in the
1940s7,w

25
Structural vibrations
25.1
Introduction
In this chapter, we will commence with discussing the free vibrations of a beam, which will be
analysed by traditional methods. This fundamental approach will then be extended to forced
vibrations and to damped o

DNG FADELER (LOOP STATEMENTS)
For - Next Dngs
For Saya = Balang Deeri to Biti Deeri [step artm]
Komutlar
Next
For dngs sayacn balang deerinden biti deerine kadar sayac her defasnda belirtilen
deer kadar artrarak dngnn iine yazlan komutlar altrr. Artm deer

DZLER (ARRAYS)
Bir dizi ayn tipte ve ayn ad paylaan ve elemanlarna bir indeks numaras ile ulalan bir
grup deiken demektir. Dizi kullanmadan, bir snftaki 50 rencinin vize notlarn saklamak
iin toplam 50 adet deiken tanmlamak gerekmektedir. Oysa dizi kullana

RNEK VISUAL BASIC PROGRAMLARI
Yeni Kavramlar:
Form_MouseMove olay (Form zerinde Mouse hareket edince gerekleir.)
txtBoxName_Change olay (Metin kutusuna yeni bir metin girilince gerekleir.)
ListBoxName.Text (Liste kutusundan seilen seenek)
ListBoxName.List

FONKSYON VE ALT-PROSEDRLER
Bir fonksiyon veya alt-prosedr belirli bir ilemi yerine getirmek iin yazlan kk program
paralardr. Fonksiyon ve alt-prosedr tanmlamaktaki ama gereksiz kod tekrarnn nne
gemektir. Programn deiik yerlerinde ayn kodlar kullanmak gere

LOJK OPERATRLER
AND (ve) Operatr
C = A And B
A
B
C
True
True
True
True
False
False
False True
False
False False
False
rnek:
Dim x, y, z As Boolean
x = True
(x True olarak atanr)
y = False
(y False olarak atanr)
z = x And y (z False olarak atanr)
OR (veya)

RNEK VISUAL BASIC PROGRAMLARI (DNG VE DZLER)
rnek1: Komut butonuna tklandnda, form zerindeki bir PictureBoxa aadaki satrlar
yazdran bir program yazalm. Satr says, N, kullanc tarafndan InputBox ile girilsin.
Private Sub Command1_Click()
Dim i, N As Integer

GLOBAL VE LOCAL DEKENLER
Deikenler global ve local olmak zere iki snfa ayrlrlar.
Local Deikenler: Sadece tanmlandklar fonksiyon ya da alt-prosedrde kullanlabilen
deikenlerdir. Bu deikenlere programdaki dier fonksiyon ve alt-prosedrler ulaamazlar.
Yukardak

I9
Lateral deflections of circular plates
19.1
Introduction
In this chapter, consideration will be made of three classes of plate problem, namely
(i)
small deflections ofplates, where the maximum deflection does not exceed half the plate
thickness, and th

18
Buckling of columns and beams
18.1
Introduction
In all the problems treated in preceding chapters, we were concerned with the small strains and
distortions of a stressed material. In certain types of problems, and especially those involving
compressive

22
Introduction to matrix alaebra
22.1
Introduction
Since the advent of the digital computer with its own memory, the importance of matrix algebra
has continued to grow along with the developments in computers. This is partly because matrices
allow themse

6
Thin shells under internal pressure
6.1
Thin cylindrical shell of circular cross-section
A problem in which combined stresses are present is that of a cylindrical shell under internal
pressure. Suppose a long circular shell is subjected to an internal p

3
Shearing stress
3.1
Introduction
In Chapter 1 we made a study of tensile and compressive stresses, which we called direct stresses.
There is another type of stress which plays a vital role in the behaviour of materials, especially
metals.
Consider a thi

4
Joints and connections
4.1
Importance of connections
Many engineering structures and machines consist of components suitably connected through
carefully designed joints. In metallic materials, these joints may take a number of different forms,
as for ex

8
Geometrical properties of cross-sections
8.1
Introduction
The strength of a component of a structure is dependent on the geometricalproperties of its crosssection in addition to its material and other properties. For example, a beam with a large crossse

10
Shearing stresses in beams
10.1
Introduction
We referred earlier to the existence of longitudinal direct stresses in a cantilever with a lateral load
at the free end; on a closer study we found that these stresses are distributed linearly over the cros

7
Bending moments and shearing forces
7.1
Introduction
In Chapter 1 we discussed the stresses set up in a bar due to axial forces of tension and
compression. When a bar carries lateral forces, two important types of loading action are set up
at any sectio

11
Beams of two materials
1 1 . Introduction
I
Some beams used in engineering structures are composed of two materials. A timber joist, for
example, may be reinforced by bolting steel plates to the flanges. Plain concrete has little or no
tensile strength

9
Longitudinal stresses in beams
9.1
Introduction
We have seen that when a straight beam carries lateral loads the actions over any cross-section of
the beam comprise a bending moment and shearing force; we have also seen how to estimate the
magnitudes of

I
Tension and compression:
direct stresses
1.I
Introduction
The strength of a material, whatever its nature, is defined largely by the internal stresses, or
intensities of force, in the material. A knowledge of these stresses i s essential to the safe des