UV-light can be applied in two modes, namely continuous UV-light mode and
UV-light mode. The pulsed UV-light provides higher instantaneous energy
than continuous UV-light and hence is more effective in inactivating pathogens.
26-5, Also available as Op
Amp Applications Handbook, Elsevier/Newnes, 2005, ISBN 0-7506-7844-5.
3. Charles Kitchin and Lew Counts, A Designer's Guide to Instrumentation
Amplifiers, 3rd Edition, Analog
Copyright 2009, Analog Devi
First, an iron core is placed inside the coil to concentrate the magnetic fields.
pole pieces are attached to the magnet to ensure that the turning force on the coil
steadily as the current increases.
The meter movement as it appe
shown in Figure 3 below. The typical CMR of the AMP03F is 100 dB, and the
bandwidth is 3 MHz.
Figure 3: AMP03 Precision Difference Amplifier
Another interesting variation on the simple difference amplifier is found in the
and neutron flux.
2.1 PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
This module will examine the theory and operation of pressure detectors
(bourdon tubes, diaphragms, bellows, forced balance and variable
capacitance). It also covers the variables of an operating environment
voltmeter in that it provides its own source of power and contains other auxiliary
A. The Structure of Permanent-magnetic moving-coil movement
The compass and conducting wire meter can be considered a fixed-conductor
device since t
input (pin 3)
by a factor of 20 times, using the R1R2 divider network. On the inverting input,
resistor R5 is
chosen such that R5|R3 equals resistor R2. The noise gain of the circuit is equal to
20 [1 +
R4/(R3|R5)], thereby providing unity gain for differ
Pa, we often use kPa and MPa as units of pressure.
2.1.2 Pressure Scales
Before we go into how pressure is sensed and measured, we have to
establish a set of ground rules. Pressure varies depending on altitude above
sea level, weather pressure fronts and
ground, but it can
be connected to other voltages, as long as they lie within a rated compliance range.
is especially useful in single-supply applications, where the output voltage is
to mid-supply (i.e., +2.5 V in the case
I. DArsonval Meter Movement *
Whenever electrons flow through a conductor, a magnetic field proportional to the
created. This effect is useful for measuring current and is employed in many
Since most of the meters in use have
DP Transmitter Application
A DP transmitter is used to measure the gas pressure (in gauge scale)
inside a vessel. In this case, the low-pressure side of the transmitter is
vented to atmosphere and the high-pressure side is connected to the vessel
filled with viscous oil. Pressure is applied to both side of the
diaphragm and it will deflect towards the lower pressure.
To provide over-pressurized protection, a solid plate with diaphragmmatching
convolutions is usually mounted in the center of the ca
springs will also tend to resist the movement of the coil when there is current
through the coil.
When the attraction between the magnetic fields (from the permanent magnet and
the coil) is
exactly equal to the force of the hairsprings, the coil will stop
within 5-s treatments.
Raw milk inoculated with S. aureus was treated with pulsed UV-light by varying
distance of milk sample from the quartz window, volume of milk, and treatment
The log10 reduction obtained varied from 0.16 to 8.55 log10 CFU/ml. C
Table 4.2. Inactivation of S. aureus by constant increase in
temperature. . 78
Table 4.3. Regression coefficients of response surface model for inactivation of S.
in milk. .
Table 4.4. Inactivation of S. aureus in milk
foam. . 81
(Xenon, 2003). UV-light is divided into four regions namely UV-A (315-400 nm),
(280-315 nm), UV-C (200-280 nm), and vacuum UV (100 to 200 nm) according to
wavelength (Perchonok, 2003). UV-light can be applied in two modes namely
Table A1. Estimation of inactivation model
parameters. . 188
Table A2. Sensory evaluation of UV treated
I would like to express my deep gratitude and sincere appreciation to my advisors,
Dr. Ali Demirci and Dr. Joseph M. Irud
Committee of Experts appointed under the Constitution of
Kenya Review Act, 2008.
(4) Articles 248 to 254 apply to the Commission.
(5) After the Commission on Revenue Allocation has been
established, the Commission for the Implementation of the Constitutio
OF OFFICE FOR THE DEPUTY PRESIDENT
I, . , do swear/
solemnly affrm that I will always truly and diligently serve the people
and the Republic of Kenya in the offce of the Deputy President of
the Republic of Kenya; that I will diligently discharge my duties
(2) Until the Supreme Court is established, the Court of Appeal
shall have jurisdiction over matters assigned to the Supreme Court.
22. All judicial proceedings pending before any court shall
continue to be heard and shall be determined by the same
Figure 4.5. Validation of the response surface
model . 80
Figure 4.6. Inactivation of S. aureus in milk
foam. . 82
Figure 4.7. Experimental vs. predicted log10 reduction of S. aureus in milk
foam. . 85
Figure 5.1. SteriPulse-XL 3000 Pulsed UVlight . 95
sketch the open loop response curve for proportional plus reset
control in response to a step disturbance;
state two general disadvantages of reset control with respect to
overall loop stability and loop response if the control setting is
Relationship between Absolute and Gauge Pressures
2.1.3 Pressure Measurement
The object of pressure sensing is to produce a dial indication, control
operation or a standard (4 - 20 mA) electronic signal that represen
1.3. When current through the movement is the same as the rated current, then the
indicates the maximum scale.
1.4. Remember that: in any circumstance, the current through the movement must
be below the
rated current, and the voltage across th
explain how errors are introduced into the DP cell signal by
abnormalities: leaking sensing lines, dirt or debris in the sensing
explain the principle of operation of temperature detectors: RTD,
thermocouple, bimetallic strip & pressu
measurement, error, output and disturbances;
state the difference between open and closed loop control;
state the basic differences between feedback and feed forward
explain the general on/off control operation;
explain why a process under on
Most forms of equipment have a predicted life span. The more reliable it is, the
less chance it has of going
wrong during its expected life span. The reliability is hence a probability ranging
from zero (it will
definitely fail) to 1.0 (it
For a metal, the electrical resistance will increase as the length of the
metal increases or as the cross sectional diameter decreases.
When force is applied as indicated in Figure 8, the overall length of the
wire tends to increase
state and explain methods of gamma discrimination for neutron ion
explain how the external factors affect the accuracy of the ion
chambers neutron flux measurement: Low moderator level, Loss
of high voltage power supply, Shutdown of the reacto
electrical characteristic. As the name implies the capacitance cell measures
changes in capacitance. The capacitor is a device that stores electrical
charge. It consists of metal plates separated by an electrical insulator. The
metal plates are connected