Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
observed "animalcules" from teeth scraping. First observed sperm.
used first scientific vaccination (small Pox)
Supported Germ Theory of disease
Examples of microbes.
Bacteria, Archaea ,Fungi, Protozoa ,Multicellular Animal Parasite, Algae, Viruses
Microbes are mostly.
Bacteria outnumber human cells
1g of soil =
1 million SPECIES bacteria
1ml of seawater =
50 million viruses
Molecule with partial charges. Mixes with water.
No partial charges. Do not mix with water.
Attraction of an atom for electrons in a covalent bond.
Water molecules sticking to each other.
plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing
the outside and nonpolar tails facing the inside
double-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surro
Form of a gene. Each characteristic has two alleles.
trait that will only appear in the phenotype if organism inherits two of them; covered up
by the dominant gene
sex cell; sperm or egg
A base thats found in DNA. It will o
Besley and Burgess (2002) - Effect of good government on Disaster relieve
They show that states with higher levels of newspaper circulation are more responsive to food
shortages as a result of droughts and floods. In states with higher newspaper circulati
Four axioms that any measure of inequality should satisfy.
1. The identity of individuals should not impact on inequality comparisons. 2. A
proportionate increase in population size should not affect income inequality 3. Only
relative incomes matter for i
`An expected increase in the price of capital goods raises investment according to the
neoclassical theory of investment.' True or false? Briefly explain your answer.
True. The neoclassical theory of investment predicts that firms should invest in capital
'The shoe-leather cost of inflation is only incurred when inflation is unanticipated.' True
or false? Explain
False. The shoe-leather cost of inflation refers to the costs incurred by households and
firms to avoid holding money that is an inferior store o
How reliable are PPP comparisons?
Even with PPP conversions, GDP differences across developed and
developing countries could overstate the real gap in living standards.
There are two reasons for this. First, home production may account for a
larger part o
`If the Ricardian Equivalence proposition is true, a permanent tax cut (with no
corresponding reduction in government spending) is not feasible.' True or false? Briefly
explain your answer.
True. Ricardian Equivalence depends on the government's lifetime
'The aggregate demand (AD) curve is downward sloping because a higher price level
reduces the real value of wages and thus lowers consumption, which is known as the
Keynes effect.' True or false? Briefly explain your answer.
False. The Keynes effect refer
'An increase in the level of money wages implies the aggregate supply (AS) curve shifts
to the right.' True or false? Briefly explain your answer.
False. For a given price level P, an increase in money wages W raises the real wage w
= W/P. Firms' incentiv
Condition for strategic default
f(k) (1 + i)(k w) f(k) k
k (1 + i)w/(1 + i) )
Banerjee et al. (2013) - Microfinance with Spandana
identified 104 suitable slums (where there was no pre-existing MFI and where poor
people lived) in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh,
Duflo (2001) - on INPRES
built 61,807 new schools between 1973 and 1979 in Indonesia. For each additional
school built per 1,000 children, the average years of schooling went up by 0.12 years.
Young cohorts received 2.6 per cent higher wages due to the IN
Tsege Asfaw, Scott DeMar, Oletha Lang, Tonya Mays, Stacy Munger
July 16, 2015
After careful analysis, our team found a medication error in the scenario. Per the
Formulation and In Vitro Evaluation of
Sunflower Oil Entrapped within
Buoyant Beads of Furosemide
Rammohan BERA, Bivash MANDAL *, Manas BHOWMIK, Hriday BERA,
Sanjoy K. DEY, Gouranga NANDI, Lakshmi K.
Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com
Pelagia Research Library
Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2010, 1 (3): 245-255
CODEN (USA): PSHIBD
Formulation and evaluation of pH sensitive polymeric blended microgel
beads of clarithromycine for t
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Regular article)
Stomach-site specific drug delivery system of clarithromycin for eradication Helicobacter
Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam RAJINIKANTH,* a,b Brahmeshwar MISHRAb
Department of Pharmaceutical Techn
Annals of Oncology 15: 1585 1595, 2004
Palliative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer
S. S. Wohrer1, M. Raderer1,2 & M. Hejna1*
Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Oncology and 2Center of Excellence in Cl