-So far we know that all arguments must be placed in standard form before they can be
-We also know that there are two different arguments that interest philosophers: deductive
and inductive arguments.
-Finally, we s
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Final Examination: April 2012
Course: PHIL 1F91
Date of Examination: Friday, April 13
TIme of Examination: 19:00-22:00
Number of Pages: 2
Number of Students: 265
Number of Hours: 3
Instructor: Dr. Calvin Hayes
THIS IS AN OPE
Problems with the Argument
-First, the argument requires the recollection argument to be true. The Forms must exist if
the argument is to go through. If we are able to demonstrate that we can come to know
perfect concepts (like equality) in some other way
Lecture #2: Philosophical Methodology
-So far we know that philosophers try to solve what Rauhut calls open questions.
-Such questions are open because it is difficult to determine what an irrefutable answer
would look like.
-Second, we know that philosop
Philosophy 1F91: Philosophical Tools.
Chp. One from Ultimate Questions
-What is Philosophy?
Best way to understand it is to ask, What does it do? What is its nature?
Philosophers will ask what something is by asking what is X qua X. Qua is Latin
LECTURE THREE (3):
*4) Judging and Evaluating Arguments
-We now come to the fourth component of philosophical methodology which has to do
with the evaluation of arguments.
-As we already know, philosophers first clarify their concepts and definitions. The
Lecture Five: Inductive Arguments
-We now know that in order for a deductive argument to be valid it must conform to a
valid logical form.
-We also examined a number of fallacious forms of reasoning. Such inference patterns
are fallacious because they are
How To Reconstruct Complex Arguments
1. Figure out the conclusion.
2. Figure out the premises.
3. Place the premises in their logical order.
-At this point it is important to remember the principle of charity: just because the
argument is not ve
-The Meno is named after a prominent man from Thessaly (city state.)
-The dialogue concerns the nature of virtue - what virtue is and whether virtue can be
-The Sophists believed that virtue could be taught. It is questionable, however, w
The Phaedo: Historical Context and Background.
-The Phaedo depicts the last dialogue between Socrates and his disciples. It occurs on the
day of Socrates execution.
-Cebes and Simmias, are the most important characters in the dialogue - Plato i
Socrates and Plato
-Socrates is considered by many philosophers to be the most important philosophers of
-Indeed, contemporary philosophers call all those philosophers that appeared before
Socrates the Pre-Socratics.
-The Pre-Socratics were main
Final Examination: April2013
Number of pages: 2
Course: PHIL 1F91 Sections 01 &02
Number of students:
Date of Examination: Friday, April 12th
Number of hours: 3
Time of Examination: 14:00-17:00
Instructor: Dr. Brian Lightbody