-derived from coca bush; grown in Peru, Bolivia, Columbia; Peru: worlds leading producer of leaf;
Columbia: worlds leading processor
-regulated as a narcotic but not a narcotic; stimulates release of brain chemicals that play a role
Tell your TA and group mates a bit about yourself. Take a few sentences to introduce yourself, your background, program
you are enrolled in at Brock and areas of interest. What is it about biology that you find particularly interesting and what do
The Nervous System (The Brain)
What does the nervous system do?
Senses information from the environment
Analyzes and Stores information
Generates behavioural responses
Parts of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Overview of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS): consists of brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerve fibres that transmit signals between the CNS and organs in
other parts of the body
-fibers grouped into bundles called ne
Patterning a Simple System
determined = cells cannot alter their anterior/posterior identity early in development (though
they can alter proximal distal identity)
HOX genes - determine mammalian anterior/posterior fate located on chromosome in same
Special Senses: Eye, Ear, and Nose
I. Overview of sensory cells of the eye, ear, and nose
- Due to evolution, the cilia of sensory cells are on the topographical outer surface f the body
- Quickies on each system
- Eye: signal through a 7TM containing rho
At some point, our migration routes - Neanderthal genes 'survive in us'
Evaluating Evolutionary Relationships
Primate evolution from 30 million years to present
How do you access this diagram of relationships?
Classification of life
What Are the Major Events in Lifes History?
Life first evolved on Earth about 3.8 billion years ago.
By about 1.5 billion years ago, eukaryotic organisms had evolved.
The fossil record of organisms that lived prior to 550 million year ago is
Species and Their Formation
What Are Species?
We can recognize and identify many species by their appearance
Linnaeus described hundreds of species on the basis of their appearancemorphological
Species form over time
Each species starts
-Neurotoxins: toxic substances that act on neurons; many act on ion channels in the nerve cell
1. Tetrodotoxin (TTX): works on the outside of voltage gated sodium channels
2. Essential for transmission of action potential (electrical signa
-formation and gradual strengthening of long-term memories
How do memories get from short to long term?
1. Not merely time
2. Build meaningful links
3. Repetition (most effective when distributed over time; massed vs spaced training)
Unique Structures of Neurons
-Axon: main conducting unit of cell (output region); conducts action potentials
-Dendrite: main receiving area of brain cell
-Excitable cells > Send electrical signals
-action potential is a non-decaying electrical signal
Discuss in your lab group one recent event in the past year (or multiple events if you wish) in the media that
highlights the importance of having an understanding of biology. How does the study of the topics covered in
lecture impact your daily lives, or