Ethnicity, social networks and discourse
Ethnic language varieties
o Often called ethnolectsvariety of language associated with particular ethnic group
o African American vernacular English: AAVE- different from English of white Africans
Dr Tom Farrell
LING 2P72 Sociolinguistics
If no changes,
What is language shift?
Language ShiftFrom using two distinct codes in different domains, to
Language of wider so
LING 2P72 last lecture
Review: sociolinguistic competence
o Linguistic competence: knowledge of language of ideal speaker-hearer in homogenous
speech community (noam Chomsky)
Challenge: must account for knowledge people to use language a
Ling 2P72: Lecture 7
o World English (WE): English as world language in all its variety; indigenized varieties of
English in their local contexts of use
World standard English (WSE): standard English as used worldwide; the stan
LING 2P72: Sociolinguistics
Lecture 4: Gender and language
o Do men and women talk differently?
LING 2P72: lecture 5
o Deliberate change in language code planned by organizations established for such
human intervention into natural processes of language change, diffusion, and
Ling 2P72: lecture 7
Style, register, cross-cultural communication
Context influences form:
Difference in ALL utterances: Stylistic
Style: language choice within a dialect, based on context, NOT group identity
Choice based on:
Language choice in multilingual communities
language often means standard language
o often seen (by non-linguists) as more correct
associated with a prescriptive approach
o how people should talk
other language (non-standard, dialect) often
Linguistic varieties and change
How do we categorize languages?
o According to status and social function
What is vernacular?
o Language not regularized/ codified
o Has no official status
LING 2P72: lecture 3
o If language didnt change
Still all speak first language from Africa
Results of change
Chinese has tones:
Some Australian languages have only three verb
o One aspect of la
Phone0c Varia0on, Firth (1992) and Ethics
Why do we care about phone0c varia0on?
Clinically, we must have some understanding
about the varia0ons of English in order to
at break come up and get quiz back
there is no actual track 9 in these ones-but not anymore-
Clinical Scoring and Transcrip4on
According to the text
Step 1: Obtain a speech sample
Step 2: Transc
Issues in L2 Pronuncia6on Instruc6on
Issues with the use of RP? (i.e. as opposed to
the use of GAE?)
Ben stein impression: Bueller!
Vowel inventory larger in RP (diff
stuff that ppl struggled with will
come back to be used again on the
final-she'll use 'stimulability' and 'paralinguistics'
Overview of Issues in L2
Lecture that day not actually though it says so on syllabus
mc, content diff, format same, up to whatever we have had
covered-all the material from course up until today,
not asked to know assessment stuff-wha
To Diacriticize, or not to Diacriticize, that
is the Question
Clinically, you are not going to mark all
the possible diacritics all of the time.
Diacritics and Stress
(in more detail)
You are mostly going to use diacritics when
Onglide symbols: (before)
Stress Symbols (above)
Text prefers numbers (1, 2, 3) above the nuclei of
the syllable to indicate stress
If you use these, make sure they are above any
-Pattern of pitch changes within an utterance
-Includes the idea
Source filter conceptualization
Manner of articulation
Try saying too, due, Sue, zoo, loo and new.
What s generally different about each?
Stops Articulatory Summary
1. Oral cavity completely closed for
Syllabus or course questions?
Tests and exams
Things to Keep in Mind
Diligent use of CDs and practice exercises
= a great mark. Cramming has never been
shown to work. Of course
Lab Quiz 1
Lecture 2a: Vowels and Diphtongs
Vowels and Diphthongs
What is a vowel in 2013?
1940s and 50s indicate some controversy.
Delineation [between consonants and vowels]
is one of the least satisfactory distinction is
Guess the answer:
a. Everybody likes rules
b. Everybody needs rules
c. It provides a systema0c way to describe
sound paCerns in language -this one
d. Its whats going
A more rened theory of phonology
Sounds are dened in terms of phone:c
proper:es smaller than the primary dimensions
discussed thus far for consonants and vowels
What is phonology
Chpt 1 outline:
Explain the dierence between physical sound and a
sound as a discrete element in language
Highlight the tradeo between accuracy and
know at least the types of rules - like stop palatization * etc.
Complex phonological pa6erns
You thought one rule was bad!
Some.mes there are mul.ple rules which
must apply in a par.cular orde
front V -> back V/ #(c)_(c) - wrong b/c 'lots of ants'
back Vstressed-> front Vstressed /front V (c) _
most neutral before vowel for UF
vl oral obstruents -> become homorganic nasal /_nasal
Deeper and deeper into the dark
recesses of the mental lexicon we go.
Why do rules maBer?
sometimes only one rruleis possible, making
Vowels and Diphthongs
Acoustic Measures of Speech
-accomplished using recorded speech
-most important to speech and audiology are
temporal measures and frequency measures
Dr. B. Zupan
notes - far too many all for my taste -most ofthem about_. half your cast disappears but the
crowd still cheers _ to hell with Gluck and Handel, have a scandal and your bound to have a hit.
Resonance -rich quality of v