L15: The Passive (II)
Use of the 2 passive patterns for reporting statements, opinions, etc.
The construction team has discovered that the proposed site contains around 3.5 million tons
It has been discovered that
Lectures 17 & 18: Modal/Semi- Auxiliaries
Modal auxiliaries in English
Modals are (used together with the main verb and) used to express ideas such as possibility,
intention, and obligation, etc. as in the following:
I may be wrong. (possibility)
L12: Tense & Aspect (II)
Combinations of tense and the prograssive and perfect aspect:
The present perfect
The present perfect progressive
The past perfect
The past perfect progressive
1. The present perfect:
A. relevance of the effect/result of a non-dur
Lecture 1 : Basic Clause Patterns
1. Two ways of sentence analysis
Note: V may contain one or more auxiliary verb followed by the main verb. The first auxiliary
verb, if there is any, is called the operator( ). The operator is used: (1) to form questions
Lecture 2 S-V Concord (I)
1. What is S-V concord? (The agreement between S and V in person and number)
2. What are the three principles guiding S-V concord?
1) Grammatical concord as the general principle (the agreement between form and meaning)
Lecture 3: S-V Concord (2)
I. S-V concord when the S consists of 2 nouns
True or False?
1. Ham and eggs are not available in this restaurant. F
2. Every men and women were invited to the party. F
3. A cart and horse were seen in the distance. F
4. Bread a
Lecture 5: Genitive Nouns
1. Case as a grammatical category of nouns and pronouns
Casechanges in the form of a word (esp. of a noun, pronoun) showing its relationship with other words
in a sentence. Cases of nouns or pronouns are used to show the function
Lectures 4: Nouns and Noun Phrases
1) What is a noun?
A word that is used to name a person, place, thing, quality, or action and can function as the subject or
object of a verb, the object of a preposition, or an appositive
2) How are classifie
Lecture 6 Determiners (1)
Determiners, structurally indispensable to a noun phrase, are a class of words that occur before the
noun head in a noun phrase, limiting the meaning of the noun head in various ways: in reference and in
Lecture 7: Determiners (2)
1. The three forms of articles in English: a(n), the, and
(1) : the absence of an article before common nouns, [P]&[U]
(2) No article being used before a proper noun, and omission of an article are not cas
Lectures 8: Pronouns (1)
I. Concord between the pronoun and its antecedent
1. Concord between pronouns and their antecedents in person, number and gender.
Person1st, 2nd, 3rd person
The boy is my desk-mate. I do
Lecture 11 Tense and Aspect (Part I)
I. Tense: Simple present and simple past tense
1. The basic and non-basic uses of the simple present tense.
The simple presentA present, present habitual and timeless situation (basic)
a past/future event or situation
Lecture 13: Future time expressions
Major means of expressing future time in English:
shall/will be doing
be going to do
be to do
be about to do
Similarities and differences
will(/shall) (a) vs. be going t
Exercise 4: L11-18
Complete each of the following with a proper form of the verb, taking into consideration
tense, aspect, mood, voice, etc.).
The president was to have visited (visit) Japan last week,
but the plan was cancelled.
He quickly swall
Lecture 19: The Infinitive (I)
I. The use of the infinitive after the following:
1. rather than
2. causative/sense verbs
3. knew/have known
1. Rather than
A. True or false?
(1) We need to offer love and support rather than using anger to for
Lecture 21: The ing Participle
I Choose a suitable form for each of the following.
1. If the car wont start, try (to push, pushing) it.
2. The car wouldnt start; the driver was trying (to push, pushing) it, but he failed.
3. He left his keys behind and tr
Lecture 22: The -Ed Participle
I. The ed participle used in the following patterns.
(1) After linking verbs like be, remain, look, appear, get, etc.
The glass was broken into pieces.
He remains unchanged.
(2) After some intransitive verbs like come
Lecture 27: Sentences
I. Classification of sentences into statements, questions, commands, and exclamation
Lecture 30: Coordination
Two types of conjunction
1) coordinationto be covered in L30: the method of using coordinating devices like and, or, but,
etc. or some punctuation marks such as ,/;/:, etc. to put linguistic units which are equivalent or of
Lecture 31: Subordination
I. Ways of expressing minor ideas through subordination
Non-finite cl. -ing forms (to be dealt with in the
Ways of subordination
Lecture 33: Relative clauses
1. Two main types of relative clause:
a. Defining/Restictive this gives essential information to know what we are talking about.
b. Non-defining/Non-restrictive this gives us extra (additional) information.
Determine whether t
Lecture 34: Conditional Sentences
Types of Conditional Sentences
1) real/open conditionals normally imply that the action or state in the conditional
clause is quite probable or may be true, but the speaker is not sure about its
realization/whether it wil
Lecture 35: Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
1. Direct speech can be used in all the four types of sentence. Different reporting verbs and clauses have
to be used when reporting these four types.
Different verbs that are commonly used to report
Lecture 26: Prepositions
I. The collocations of prepositions with verbs, nouns, adjectives.
1.His attorney argued that Cope could not distinguish between right and wrong.
2.This new policy distinguished him from other candidates.
3.The recipe says you can
Lecture 28: There-be Construction (Existential Sentence)
The verb and the verb form in a there-be construction
Bein the simple form: is/was/are/were
In the perfective form: has/have/had been
In finite forms modal + bein the simple form: will/may/might/
Lecture 20: The Infinitive (II)
I. N+ infinitive
S + be + adj. + to do
It + be + adj. (for sb.) + to do
It + be + adj. of sb. to do
A. Is each of the following possible for an it-pattern?
1. He was lucky to get back his lost wallet.
2. She was thoughtles
Lecture 23: Adjectives
ModificationAdjectives or phrases as pre-modifiers
1. a small new black French leather purse
2. an expensive old brown Italian maple violin
3. delicious French red wine
4. a funny little man
5. a little red flag
6. an i
Lecture 25: Comparative Constructions
I. Major comparative patterns
1. 2 comparative items over 1 aspect (2c+1a)
(1) A is as + adj. + as + B
(2) A is as + adj. + (a) N + as B (in which the N normally cant be a plural noun, but is
normally a sin
Lecture 32: Subordination(II)
I. The syntactic functions of the non-finite forms and the verbless clause.
1) The infinitive(nominal, adjectival & adverbial) S, Cs (after a linking V/after a full V), O, Co,
Modifier, Adverbial, C-adj.(happy to do)
Exercise 1: Introduction-L3
Tell what sentence type each of the following belongs to (in terms of Simple
Sentence, Compound Sentence, Complex Sentence and Compound-complex
The visitors have vowed to return this morning and