May 2014
1 hour 30 minutes
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREES OF M.A., M.SCI. AND B.SC.
(SCIENCE)
Biostatistics Exam May 2014 Solutions
1. (a) In an intention-to-treat analysis, all patients who are randomized are included in
the analysis regardless of whether t
Issues in Clinical Trial Design: Supplement on Ethics of Randomisation
Presumably any clinical trial is conducted because there is a reasonable chance that the new
treatment does represent a genuine improvement over existing treatments. However the
eviden
Biostatistics Course
Solutions to Example Sheet No. 3
1. (i) The crude death rates make no allowance for any differences in the population age
structure. It is clear from the table that Bournemouth has a much higher percentage of
over 65s than Southampton
Biostatistics 3H/M
Example Sheet 3
1. The following table describes the pattern of deaths among males (excluding children
under 1 year of age) in Bournemouth and Southampton over a 5 year period.
Age group
(years)
1-44
45-64
65+
All ages
Bournemouth
Popul
Biostatistics 3H/M
Example Sheet 1
1. In an open (unblinded) trial of the beta-blocker alprenolol given to patients after
myocardial infarction, randomization to alprenolol or the standard treatment was
carried out at the time of admission to hospital.
Th
ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM CLINICAL TRIALS
Most of the methods of analysis in common use in clinical trials will be covered in other
courses. Some of you may analyse data from a clinical trial for one of your projects. There
are, however, a few general problem
CLINICAL TRIALS - SOME ISSUES IN DESIGN
By now you should have critically read a published report of a clinical trial which involved
the use of controls, randomisation and blinding. Were all of these really necessary, or could
the treatment have been prop
CLINICAL TRIALS AN INTRODUCTION
1.
What is a Clinical Trial?
A Clinical Trial is any form of planned experiment which involves human patients.
Generally, the trial is carried out on a sample of patients (selected from the population of
patients with the d
SIZE OF A CLINICAL TRIAL
There are three main types of issue to be considered in determining how many patients
should be entered into a clinical trial:
(i)
Practical issues:- For example: how many patients are available for study? What
resources are avail
Biostatistics 3H/M
Example Sheet 2
Biostatistics Course
1. A clinical trial is planned to compare Sheet No. 2
Exercise a new treatment with a standard treatment
in patients who have suered a heart attack. The principal outcome measure is
mortality within
Biostatistics Course
Solutions to Exercise Sheet No. 1
l. (a) Only those allocated to alprenalol will have been withdrawn because of contra-
indication to the treatment. The two groups, in addition to being of different size, are
thus likely to be non-c
Monday 22nd April, 2013
2.00 - 3.30 pm
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREES OF M.A., M.SCI. AND B.SC.
(SCIENCE)
Biostatistics 3
Hand calculators with simple basic functions (log, exp, square root, etc.) may be used
in examinations. No calculator which can store or
May 2014
1 hour 30 minutes
EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREES OF M.A., M.SCI. AND B.SC.
(SCIENCE)
Biostatistics
Hand calculators with simple basic functions (log, exp, square root, etc.) may be used
in examinations. No calculator which can store or display text
Biostatistics 3 - Model Answers Exam 2013
March 6, 2013
1. (a) Randomized: randomisation is a chance process used to assign patients to intervention groups; every individual patient is equally likely to be assigned to
one intervention group or another. It
Biostatistics 3 April 2012 Solutions
Question 1
a) Randomised: patients are randomly allocated to the treatments. Double-blind: none
of the patient, the investigator or the medical team know which treatment is being
given to the patient. Placebo-controlle
Biostatistics 3H/M
Example Sheet 4
1. Given a hazard function h(t) = c, derive the corresponding survival function and probability density function.
2. Given the survival function S(t) = exp(t ), derive the corresponding probability density function and h
Biostatistics 3H/M
Example Sheet 4 Solutions
1. Since S(t) = exp
has
t
0
h(u)du (see Chapter 1 of Survival Analysis lecture notes) here one
t
S(t) = exp
c du
= ec t
0
and since f (t) = dS(t)/dt
f (t) =
d ct
(e ) = c ect
dt
i.e T Ex(c) here.
2. Since f