Basic of Statistics 2016/2017
First semester
Chapter 2
1. Sample spaces and Algebra of Sets. (2.2) The Probability function.(2.3)
2. Conditional probability. Applying conditional probability to higherintersections. Unconditional and inverse probabilities.
BUREAUCRACY
Dr Saira Lee
[email protected]
OVERVIEW
Ideal Types of Authority
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Advantages and Issues with Bureaucracy
Linkages to Bureaucracy
New Forms of Work Organisation and Ways of Managing
Summary
MAX WEBER (18
Answers to End-of-Chapter
Questions and Problems
Chapter 1
1. a. True.
b. True.
c. False.
d. True.
e. False.
f. False.
2. a.
US
EU
Japan
1960-98
-3.1%
3.1%
5.8%
1997-99
-3.8%
2.5%
-1.0%
While the US growth rate higher than its long-run average over the pe
Economics 2B
Set 1: Introduction
Tatiana Kirsanova
Semester 2, 2016-17
T.Kirsanova ()
Macro 2B
Semester 2, 2016-17
1 / 45
A Tour of the World
What is macroeconomics?
I
I
Lets have an economic tour of the world!
Lets have a sense of these recent events and
Economics 2B
Set 3: Financial Markets
Tatiana Kirsanova
Semester 2, 2016-17
T.Kirsanova ()
Macro 2B
Semester 2, 2016-17
1 / 26
Financial Markets
Financial markets are intimidating, but they play an essential role in
the economy.
We will focus on the role
MFFM ECON5022
Lecture 4: Modelling Volatility
Dr. Minjoo Kim
Economics
University of Glasgow
February 8, 2017
1 / 57
Properties of high-frequency asset returns
1
Large (and small) returns occur more often than expected under
normality: Distribution of ret
MFFM 13-14 Spring 2014
Solved Exercises 1: Basic Time Series Concepts
PART I - Instructor: Dimitris Korobilis
Consult Brooks (2008) chapter 5
1. Assume that the stationary process Xt has an autocovariance function given by k . Find
the autocorrelation fun
MFFM ECON5022
Lecture 2: Linear Processes for The Mean of A Time Series
Dr. Minjoo Kim
Economics
University of Glasgow
1 / 43
White noise
A time series (stochastic process) t is called a white noise (WN) process if it
is a sequence of independent and iden
MFFM ECON5022
Lecture 3: Non-linear Processes for The Mean of A Time Series
Dr. Minjoo Kim
Economics
University of Glasgow
January 5, 2017
1 / 32
Regime switching
What do we mean by regime switching, and why might this be relevant for
economic and financi
MFFM 13-14 Spring 2014
Solved Exercises 3: Nonlinear Time Series Models
PART I - Instructor: Dimitris Korobilis
Consult Brooks (2008) chapter 9
1. Consider the 3-state Markov-Switching Autoregression of order one (or 3-state MSAR(1) for short) of the form
MFFM 12-13 Spring 2013
Solved Exercises 4: Models for Volatility
PART I - Instructor: Dimitris Korobilis
Consult Brooks (2008) chapter 8
1. Analyze an appropriately parameterized ARCH(1) process. Show that as a model for a
financial time series, this proc
MFFM ECON5022
Lecture 5: Multivariate Time-series Models
Dr. Minjoo Kim
Economics
University of Glasgow
1 / 29
Time series regression
Regressions with time series variables involve two issues we have not dealt
with in the past.
1
One variable can influenc
MFFM 13-14 Spring 2014
Solved Exercises 2: ARMA models
PART I - Instructor: Dimitris Korobilis
Consult Brooks (2008) chapter 5
1. The first interest in unit root testing came from an old debate about business cycle
theory: are output fluctuations transito
MFFM ECON5022
Lecture 1: Preliminaries of Time-series
Dr. Minjoo Kim
Economics
University of Glasgow
1 / 47
What is a time series?
It is a random variable which evolves in time.
A variable which is dynamic.
A variable which fluctuates over time.
A var
Introduction to finance and
financial management
Lecture 1, Week 6
Dr. Shammyla Naeem
Introduction to Finance, Investments and
Institutions
Dr. Shammyla Naeem
University Teacher in Accounting and Finance
Adam Smith Business School
Direct line: +44 (0)141
Introduction to financial
statement
Lecture 1, Week 7
Introduction to Finance, Investments and
Institutions
2
Learning Objectives of this
topic
1.
Identify the users and uses of financial
information
2.
Understand what annual financial report are
3.
Know
Firm Supply - Pure Competition
(Reading: Varian Chap 23)
How does a firm decide how much product to supply?
technology (we already discussed )
Goals (objective .)
market environment
competitors behaviours
Market Environments
Are
Do
Is
there many ot
Cost Minimization
(Reading: Varian Chapter 21)
A firm is a cost-minimizer if it produces any given output
y 0 at smallest possible total cost.
Some notations
y is the units of output produced.
c(y) is the total cost function producing y units of output
w
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 7: Market demand
M. Lombardi
1
Market demand
Suppose that in the market there are n=2 consumers
x11=x11(p1,p2 ,m): consumer 1s demand function for good 1
x21=x21(p1,p2 ,m): consumer 2s demand function for good 1
To get ma
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 1: The Market
M. Lombardi
1
Economic modelling
The Theory of Economics does not furnish a body of settled
conclusions immediately applicable to policy. It is a method
rather than a doctrine, an apparatus of the mind, a tech
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 10: Buying and Selling
M. Lombardi
1
Buying and Selling
Up until now, people have only had money to exchange
for goods. But in reality, people sell things they own (e.g.,
labor) to acquire goods. Want to model this idea.
Monopoly Behaviour
(Reading: Varian Chapter 26)
How Should a Monopoly Price?
Uniform pricing
firm sells its product at the same price to every customer.
(so far we assumed that the monopoly had to adhere to
uniform pricing)
Price-discrimination
Firm can s
Oligopoly
(Reading: Varian Chapter 28)
A monopoly is an industry consisting a single firm.
A duopoly is an industry consisting of two firms.
An oligopoly is an industry consisting of a few firms.
Each firms own price or output decisions affect its
competi
Monopoly
(Reading: Varian Chapter 25)
A monopolized market has a single seller.
The monopolists demand curve is the
downward sloping market demand curve.
So the monopolist can alter the market price by choosing its
output level.
Pure Monopoly
/output unit
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 2: Budget constraint
M. Lombardi
1
Budget constraint
Consumer theory: consumers choose the best bundles of
goods they can afford.
this is virtually the entire theory in a nutshell
but this theory has many surprising conse
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 4: Utility
M. Lombardi
1
Preference (see lecture 3)
Notation
(x1, x2)>(y1, y2) means the x-bundle is strictly preferred to
the y-bundle
(x1, x2) (y1, y2) means that the x-bundle is regarded as
indifferent to the y-bundle
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 6: Individual Demand
M. Lombardi
1
Demand
In the previous lectures we studied how maximizing the
utility function subject to budget constraint yields optimal
choices.
Demand functions give the optimal amounts of each of
t
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 9: Consumers surplus
M. Lombardi
1
Consumers surplus: discrete case
Suppose that preferences of a
consumer can be represented by
utility function of the form
u(x1, x2)=g(x1)+ x2 : x2=m-p1x1
where g() is an increasing and c
Economics 2A (ECON2001)
Lecture 8: Slutsky Equation
M. Lombardi
1
Slutsky decomposition
The Slutsky decomposition is an analytical tool that allows
us to understand how demand changes when a price
changes. It does this by breaking the total change in
dema