Intersection 1 - Plotted
Formatting for point
markers may be of
due to the version of
Microsoft Office being
Clunie - 'C'
Robbers - 'R'
M - 'M'
Control Point (CP) Name
Clunie to Windy
Clunie to Robbers
Clunie to Finart
Windy to Robbers
x (Diff. in Eastings) y (Diff. in Northings) CP (Diff. in CP's)
Control Pt. A
Control Pt. B
Vert. Angle Vert. Dec. Deg.
262.5 89 58' 40"
152.6 90 02' 30"
Lecture 9 Cold War Exploration
Cold war period of military and political conflict between USA and USSR [and their allies]
(1945-1989) Russia wanted direct control over countries along its borders. Fought through
military coalitions a
Lecture 5 Exploring New World Frontiers
Treaty of Tordesillas was signed in 1949 by the two most powerful nations in Europe
during the 15th Century Spain and Portugal. Rather than going to war, they signed an
agreement to divide the new world between them
Lecture 6 Exploration and Empire
Voyages of exploration increasingly being staged into the interior of continents throughout
the 19th Century 19th Century saw explosion of societies dedicated to science The Age
of Societies. Up until 18th Century explorat
Lecture 7 Exploration in High Places
High latitude places North and South Pole regions thinking particularly about the late
19th/early 20th Century considering Europes obsession with the poles/origin points.
Romantic movement and polar landscapes voyages
Lecture 2 Early Modern Exploration
Work of Spanish and Portuguese explorers was prevalent during 16th and 17th Centuries
prevailing ideas about the world [importance of shaping renaissance understanding of the
Exploration existed before the age o
Represented on maps from mid-16th Century Mercators map = most famous for
illustrating Terra Australis.
During enlightenment was a shift in how knowledge should be produced shift towards
science [emergence o
Working out longitude at sea one of the central problems of the 18 th Century = direct link to
Prefiguring the Scientific Revolution proved that truthful knowledge should be based on
Theories of Exploration
Methods of Exploration
Histories of Exploration
Contexts of Exploration
Exploration = the question to discover the unknown The action of exploring an unfamiliar
area (Oxford Dictionaries, 2014).
Significance of empire for the development of British science in the 18th and 19th centuries
has been understood in a variety of ways. From the perspective of orthodox histories of
exploration, voyages and travels provided an ever increas
Royal Geographical Society
Founded in 1830 the RGS came to be associated in the public mind with many of the most
celebrated expeditions of the 19th century and its representatives were keen to capitalise on
the publicity which surrounded them.
Classification of volcanoes
Hawaiian - low viscosity basaltic magma, fire fountain, non-explosive, very little pyroclastic
material. 2 lava types, pahoehoe (low viscosity, ropy) and aa (more viscous, blocky). Lava
flows from the vent in a relatively gentl
Also known as ash flows, mixtures of hot volcanic ash and steam that pour downslope
because they are too dense to rise. Both steam and ash in the hottest ash flows are at a dull
red heat, between 800 and 850 degrees C. The ash particles
Andesitic volcanoes erupt above subduction zones e.g. Colina in Mexico. They are moderate
in volume, size, viscosity and slope and have moderate to high volatile content.
Stratovolcanoes are dominated by andesitic composition. Contai
Lahar (volcanic mudflow)
When loose tephra mixes with water
Source of water:
Melting of snow/ice during eruption
Emptying of crater lake during eruption
Mudflows pour down the flanks of stratovolcanoes with densities resembling those of wet
Fire suppression and Prevention
A variety of approaches are typically used for fire suppression. Highly trained smokejumpers
parachute into remote areas of lightning-caused spot fires to exterminate them before they
spread out of control. Bulldozers cut f
Predicting Volcanic Eruptions
Active Volcano - shown eruptive activity within recorded history, need not be in eruption to
be considered active. ~ 600 active volcanoes. No simple answer if a volcano is active e.g.
Yellowstone not erupted in 600 000 years
Weather and fire
Fire prefers warmer temperatures
supplies oxygen, dries fuel
fire creates its own wind patterns fire whirls
humidity or precipitation can suppress a fire
release of ethylene by plants subject
Can be fast - 64 km/hr but most slow so can run away! Rarely a threat to people
Main threat is to property and environment
Some basalt flows have smooth tops with a smooth ropy form or billowy surface generally
called pahoehoe. Pahoe
Forest fires, vegetation fires, grass fire, bush fire, brush fire
Differentiated by extensive size, speed, potential to change direction, ability to jump gaps
Caused by volcanic eruptions, drought, lightening, human actions
Periodicity of fires
Distribution and types of volcano
A convergent boundary is where two plates (usually a continental and oceanic) move toward
each other, forcing the denser (oceanic) plate to go under the lighter (continental) plate and
sink into the m
Magma Type Solidified Rock Chemical Composition
45-55 SiO2 %, high in Fe, Mg,
1000 - 1200 oC Low
Ca, low in K, Na
55-65 SiO2 %, intermediate in
800 - 1000 oC
Reducing risks and mitigation
Establish evacuation plans
Best to be done by both experts and locals
production of atmosphere and hydrosphere
rich ore deposits
Pinatubo was a somewhat unfa
Governmental agencies spend millions of dollars in the US fighting fires , and most of those
efforts are expended in protecting homes, much of the cost is on the general public rather than
the people who choose to live in these wooded areas.
Climate and Weather
Climate can be defined as the average weather and/or as the expected year-to-year variation
in weather variables
The climatic system consists of the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere
Hurricanes in the North Atlantic and eastern Pacific.
Typhoons in the western Pacific, Japan and Southeast Asia
Cyclones in the Indian Ocean.
All major subtropical cyclones
They have wind speeds of more than 120km per hour and can exceed 260km per hour.
Most earthquakes occur along zones where the Earth's crust is undergoing deformation.
Deformation results from plate tectonic forces and gravitational forces.
generally occurs along zones where rocks fracture to produce faults.
Rocks are const
Earthquake Belts and Distribution
Earthquake belts and distribution. Earthquakes occur in welldefined belts that correspond to
active plate tectonic zones. The circumPacific belt (also called the Rim of Fire) follows the
rim of the Pacific Ocean and hosts