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PHYSICS II (Fall 2013)
PROBLEM SET 2
Due: 26 September 2013, 10 a.m.
Problem 1. In a certain region of space, the electric field E is uniform, i.e. is constant in both the
magnitude and the direction.
(a) Use Gausss law to argue that this region of space
6. The FRW metric of a flat universe
ds = dt + a (t)
a(t) is the scalar factor, which describes the expansion of the universe. How does
the expansion affect photon energy?
Liouville Theorem and Jarzynski Equality,
The Liouville theorem which says that phase space volume is
constant have a deep contradiction with the second law of
thermodynamics. And this essay will show you the derivation of the