Steps of the Scientific Method: Observe a phenomenon, formulate a
hypothesis (a testable prediction), collect data through systematic and
planned observations to avoid bias, evaluate whether the data is consistent
with the hypothesis. If the data
Issues to consider when measuring behaviour
Reliability: Consistency of results when measurement is done under similar
conditions. (Cross time, cross situations, cross observers). Ex. Assessment of
career path. Should be able to do the study at d
Case Studies: An individual who is unique in some waystudy this person in detail.
Useful as a starting point, study rare phenomena.
E.g., H.Mhad a bicycle accident when he was 9, started having severe seizures. At the age o
Psychology is a scientific study of mental processes and behaviour amongst
animals and humans. Goals include:
1. To understand the relationship between mental processes and
2. To make predictions about mental processes and behaviour.
Population: Entire set of individuals that are of interest to the researcher.
Target: Target all Canadian universities is too broadthis is what we
want to generalize our results to.
Accessible: Instead of targeting all Canadian universitiesfocu
Step 2: Properties of a good hypothesis are repeatable, logical (connected
to research studies or theories in the area), testable/refutable/falsifiable
(hypothesis can be proven false, what do you expect if you are wrong?).
CONFUSION: textbook us
Sensitivity of Measurement: Can the measure detect differences?
Ceiling effect: most scores are at the HIGH end. If the goal of your study is to
see an increase, it will be hard to see if there is one since all scores are
already at the high end.
Reading a Journal Article: Primary Source
Abstract- summary of the article.
Introduction- tells you what the question of interest is whats the problem
that needs to be solved? Summarized all the research that has been done in
the past. What has b
Personality Quiz #2
1. Carl Jung Freuds favorite discipleSwiss man to carry on the legacy. Split after
following in his shadow, stated that the idea of infant sexuality/sexual motives had too
much emphasis on them. Freud thought th
American Bandstand: Familiar radio show adapted to television. Best-known
host was Dick Clarklip-synched performances, nothing was live. Facilitated
interest in dancing (Hairspray era). The Twistsuch a hit that people
couldnt let it go. Afterward
Carl Gustav Jung: Freuds favorite discipleSwiss man to carry on Freuds
legacy. Split with Freud after following in his shadow. Jung stated that infant
sexuality and sexual motives were overblown (thought Freud put too much
emphasis on it). Freud
Traditional views of consciousness: Something we just ARE not something
we do, synonymous with being awake, not something done in a right or
Freudian view of consciousness: Active (not passive), exercising a learned
skill that people c
Biological Underpinnings of Personality
The biological approach is a trait perspective as it stems from them. It offers explanation of
where traits come and states that they are biologically determined. Traits that we have come
from some sort of biologica
Topographical Model of the Mind
Conscious: Part of the min that holds what one is currently thinking.
Pre-conscious: Part of the mind that corresponds to memory. Accessible to
becoming consciouscan reach information if we want to.
Search for Optimal Number of Traits Cattell got things down to 15but Eysenck thought this
was too much, decided that it was 2, later 3. Some think that this is not enough and state that
important factors can be left out, simplicity is important too. There
Dr. Rick Mehta
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AT RISK YOUTH:
Refugees are defined as people who flee their country of origin to
seek asylum in another host country. In other words, a refugee is a
person in or outside Canada who fears retu
Final Exam Notes
What is it?
Applies principles of evolution to explain
origins and functions of human behaviour
Note functions = what problems the
behaviour helps solve (usually not
Seeks to explain why (ultimately) we act
the way we do
Proximate causes may be
Stress, Coping, and Health
What was most stressful yesterday?
The Relationship Between Stress
Contagious diseases vs. chronic
Interaction of biological, psychological, and
Introductory Psychology 1023
Chapter 11: Human Development
Age-related changes over time
Nature-nurture interactions dominate our
Example: Nature-Nurture debate over intelligence
Example: Cultural variation in child-rearing practice
Introductory Psychology 1023
Chapter 10: Motivation and
On slips of paper, write
down your favorite food smell
Motivational Theories and
Motives needs, wants, desires leading to
Drive theories seeking homeostasi
Research Methods in
How do Psychologists
Learn About People?
Outline for Unit
Elements of Critical Thinking
Types of Research; Strengths &
Weaknesses of Each Approach
The Evolution of Psychology
What is Psychology, and
How Did it Grow?
What is Psychology?
Types of Psychology
Clinical and Related Fields
What is Psychology?
Study of mental processes & behaviour
Understand basis of
Chapter 6: Learning
Learning is not species-specific
Types of Learning
Orientation, Habituation, and Sensitization
Recognizing and reacting to important events
Learning what stimuli sign
Linear Algebra(Bretscher) Chapter 7 Notes
Dynamical Systems and Eigenvectors: An Introductory Example
Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues
Denition Consider an n n matrix A. A nonzero vector v in Rn is called an eigenvector of A if Av is a scalar multiple o