PSYCHOLOGY 251- CHAPTER 8 NOTES
-Alfred Binet= French psychologist studying intelligence for 15 years, to develop an
easy-to-administer, objective test of intelligence.
-The prevailing view at the time was that intelligence is based on simple skills, such
Unit 12 Gender Development (Chapter 15)
Sex: male or female according to the individuals genes and physical genitalia.
Gender: male or female social gender identity.
Hormones in the body play a crucial role in the development of sexual characteristics, in
PSYCHOLOGY 251- CHAPTER 9 NOTES
-Theories of social development attempt to account for many important aspects of
development, including emotion, personality, attachment, self, peer relationships,
morality, and gender.
Recognition of right and wrong was once thought to be separate from the rest of development
and part of the domain of religious education
Moral development proceeds like cognitive development and the two are possibly linked
CHAPTER 7 NOTES- PSYC 251
-Infants lack concepts of furniture, reading material, and sports equipment, and also lack
more specific, relevant concepts such as baseball mitts and books.
-Concepts are general ideas that organize objects, events, qua
Ch. Ten Emotional Development
The Development of Emotions in Childhood
-Emotion; characterized by physiological responses, subjective feelings, and
the desire to take action
-Emotional Intelligence: A set of abilities that contribute to competence in
Week 10 Attachment, Identity and Self Esteem
What is attachment and how is it measured?
First proposed by Bowlby (psychoanalysis)
Secure base behavior increases survival (evolutionary)
Innate basis but influenced by environment
Week 12: Gender Development
Define the terms sex versus gender
Gender is the first thing told to parents.
One of the first things you notice about people, can be disturbing if
you cant determine
Anatomically, physiologically, and hor
Week 11 Moral Development
Piagets Theory of Moral Development
Piaget said children go from a rigid acceptance of the rules to
understanding of circumstances
Watched kids playing games
Also gave them vignettes
Morality of Constraint Stag
Week 9: Emotional Development & Temperament
What is the functionalist approach to emotion and what are the various
components of emotional experience?
Theories of early emotions
Izards cross-cultural research-differential or discrete emotions
o Present f
Week 8 Family and Friendship
What are Baumrinds Four Parenting Styles
Demanding + Supportive: Authoritative (relationship is reciprocal, responsive, high in
bidirectional communication, listen and demand what is appropriate for childs age, have
Week 7: Theories of Social Development
Freuds Psychosexual Theory
No longer used in psychology but influential because he was the first
to talk about the importance of childhood and parenting
He believed children have to resolve a
3 Hallmarks of comparative cognition
1. Examination of cognitive processes
Cognition: knowledge or thinking- examines how humans and animals acquire,
store, and process information
Mental processes/activities used in perceiving, rem
Chapter 10 (Language and Communication):
-The Road to Speech
-Elements of Language:
Language: a system that relates sounds (or gestures) to meaning.
It has arbitrary units and is therefore symbolic.
It is structured and meaningful
It shows displacement
Chapter 9 (Intelligence and Individual Differences in Cognition):
-Psychometricians: psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological
characteristics such as intelligence and personality.
-Carrolls Hierarchical Theory: compr
Chapter 8 (Cognitive Processes and Academic Skills):
-3 important features of memory exist as early as 2 and 3 months of age.
1. An event from the past is remembered.
2. Overtime, the event can no longer be recalled.
3. A cue can serve to dredge
Chapter 7 (Theories of Cognitive Development):
-Basic Principles of Piagets Theory:
Assimilation: occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into a childs
Accommodation: occurs when a childs theories are modified based on
-Every level has an effect bidirectional effects
Microsystem direct (daily interactions: family, daycare)
Mesosystem the interactions and connections between the layers (ie. Parent involvement at
-One of the first things you notice about people first thing told to parents
-Gender based preferences develop very early
-Biological or socialization?
-By 18 months, kids have developed some gender word
Self Control: the ability to control ones behaviors and to inhibit impulsive respondings to temptation.
-1st birthday: know they arent free to behave as they wish
-2 years: capable of some self control in their parents absence
-3 years: capabl
Psychology 251 Exam
Development of the Self:
-James talked about the I-self vs. the me-self
I-Self self as an observer and experiencer or knower and actor (Continuity I am the same
person as yesterday, Agency I know I did it).
Emotion: cognitive appraisal of a situation, and include a motivation to behavior.
-Basic, innate emotions are universal.
-Sadness is not a good sign in babies learned helplessness (babies a
-Symbols are arbitrary.
-Allows for displacement
-Meaning in the structure
Components of Language:
-Phonemes components of sound
-Morphemes units of meaning
-Memory strategies include rehearsal, organization, elaboration ( every good boy deserves fudge), and
-Metacognition is important (the ability to reflect on all your cognitive proc
Piagetian Theory*Constructivist theory active learner; must figure things out on their own (construct their own knowledge).
Discontinuous stages (qualitatively different).
Chapter 11 (Emotional Development):
The Function of Emotions:
-Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environment.
-Emotions develop to meet unique life challenges and help humans survive.
Experiencing and Expressing Emotion: