Text: R. M. Julien A primer Of Drug Action
Midterm: Oct 16th 35 MCQ 50 minutes.
Grading 30% Midterm 70% Final
History of Drug Usage
6.3: Herbal Drugs- gained popularity over past 2 decades b/c desire of public to use natural (and safer)
drugs AND manufacturers promote them for financial gain
- were once used before 1940smed was based on opium, cascara, digitalis leaf, and tinctures
PHARMACOLOGY EXAM REVIEW
Pre-clinical (3-6 years)
o Tests is the drug is safe and effective
o Toxicology studies
Determine the effects on organ systems other than the targeted
o Pharmacology studies
Determines the detailed mechani
Lesson 6: Current Issues in Pharmacology
6.1: Vitamins Most from diet. Are cofactors in biochem pathways. Initial knowledge from diseases,
but now interest in prevention of diseases with vitamins.
Definition: essential for normal metabolic functions, but
Lesson 6.2: Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drugs
Definition of OTC Drugs
- OTC: any drug that can be bought w/out doctors prescription
- ppl dont considerdrugs tho they are, and can cause toxicities, and drug interactions
- COMMON OTCS: (10)
1.2 Drug Devp, Drug Trials, and Drug Advertising
the stages of drug development
the placebo effect
the details of carrying out a drug trial
how to assess the validity of a clinical trial
the techniques used in drug advertising
3.2: Sedative-Hypnotics and Anxiolytics
The sedative-hypnotic agents are CNS depressants. Produce dose-dependent CNS depression
ranging from: anti-anxiety effect sedation hypnosis (sleep) general anesthesia
- magnitude of CNS depression produced by a drug
Module 3: Nervous System Part II
3.1: Antipsychotic Agents and Mood Stabilizers
PSYCHOSES- 2 subdivisions: organic and functional
Organic psychoses: known causes e.g toxic, metabolic, or neuropathological changes like drug
abuse, alcoholism, or neurodegen
- rapidly develops to sleep induction and mood effects (within a few weeks of nightly
- more slowly to impaired motor coordination and slowed rxn time.
- v slowly to anticonvulsant effects so not a major problem clinically
- ADH mainly in liver (so alcohol predominantly metabolized in liver) but some in stomach. So
in men, some metabolism in stomach (less alcohol metabolism in stomachs of women).
- conversion of alcohol by ADH > ADLH = primary mechanism of alcohol metaboliz
Blockade of Dopamine Receptors:
- therapeutic effect: antagonism of dopamine receptors in mesolimbic and mesofrontal
systems of the brain (meso=middle). Limbic system controls emotion+ behaviour.
- adverse effects:
! antagonism of dopamine receptors in ni
Lesson 6.5: Drugs in Sports
- ancient greeks ate mushrooms to help w/ performance
- aztecs ate human hearts to improve performance
- belgian racers used sugar cubes dipped in ether as performance enhancer
- early 1900s, boxers ate brandy and cocai
6.4: Food additives (*additive implies food additive in the following section)
- food additives: classical def: added to food to improve appearance, texture, and storage of food. May
include stuff added during processing of food.
" broader def: also inclu
6.6: Regulation of Fertility- control world population b/c growth of pop will outstrip ability of earth to
produce food, energy, and raw material according to Malthus (200 yrs ago)
Contraception: prevention of conception. Fertility control methods include
Dose Responseand Selective Toxicity
Potency and Efficacy
Potency refers to the amount of drug that must be given to obtain a particular
Efficacy refers to the maximal response that can be obtained with the drug.
Potency and Efficacy
Which drug i
PHAR 100 Environmental ToxicantsPart 1
Usually more obvious effects
Acute effects often different from chronic effects
e.g. aflatoxin B1 (common food contaminant)
Acute: liver necrosis, liver failure, death
Chronic: liver cancer
2700 BC to 1800s Hemp used to make rope. Also a drug.
1920-30 Outlawed marijuana.
1960s-1970s Increased use of marijuana.
60% of young adults in USA; similar in Canada smoked pot
1978 U.S.A. sponsored a sprayi
History of Drug Usage
DRUG: Any substance received by a biological system that is not received for
nutritive purposes. Includes chemicals and biologicals, herbals.
Drugs have been used for 1000s of years.