Binary Files vs. Text Files
Binary files: a streamof bits (1s and0s)
Easy to understand by a computer, compact, the ability to add meta data
Its up to the application that created a binary file to understand what all of the bits mean.
Can only be read
Question 1: DTD and XML Schema (20 marks)
(A) [2 marks 5 = 10 marks] List ve dierences between XML Schema and DTD.
1. XML Schema is namespace aware, while DTD is not.
2. XML Schemas are written in XML, while DTDs are not.
3. XML Schema is strongly
Official Goals of XML
Store and Retrieve Data
Ensure Data Integrity
Transformation to presentational formats (XSLT)
Transformation and formakng objects (XSL-FO)
Support multiple human languages XML makes it easy for a computer to:
Create and process
Advantages of XML
The advantages of easier-to-write code far outweigh the disadvantages of larger
bandwidth issues Is a Text Format Acceptable
Form should follow function The result will beser labelling of data, richer formakng
possibilities, and enhanc
There are two types of legal XML documents:
well-formed documents, and
Validity versus Well-formedness
Well-formed documents need only be parsable.
Valid documents must be parsable, and their structure must satisfy the constraints impose
Valid Documents and DTDs
Such constraints can be imposed by associating an XML document
with a DTD.
A well-formed document that is associated with a DTD, and that meets the
constraints stipulated therein, is a valid XML document.
Other ways exist for s
A format that combined the universality of text files with the efficiency and rich information
storage capabilities of binary files:
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) SGML is a text-based language that
can be used to mark up da
XML vs SGML
The original SGML standard was developed in 1986, and is descended from
IBMs Generalised Markup Language developed in the 1960s
Compared with XML, SGML allows greater control and flexibility in how
documents can be described or constrained.
Question 1 Circle the one best answer for the following questions (20 Marks)
1. Is the following statement true or false?
XML only allows tabs and spaces for whitespace characters.
2. Both CDATA sections and comments are designe
Question 1: DTD and XML Schema (10+10=20 marks)
1. (10 marks) Consider an XML application for residential real-estate listings that provides
separate elements for apartments, sublets, units for sale, condos for sale, and houses
for sale. The element decla
Jean-Baptiste Say is one of the most important and insightful thinkers in the history of
economic science. Say was a major proponent of Adam Smith's self-directing economic
system. Say emphasized the observation of the facts of reality at the same time he