These notes are prepared by: A.R. Hajiaboli
1.
Basics of Quantum Mechanics
1.1
Energy quantization
One of the basic differences between classical mechanics and its quantum counterpart is
that whereas classical mechanics allows particles in a system to hav
1) Consider an electron with a wavefunction given by
2
2z
w
w
<z<
sin
w
w
2
2
The wavefunction is zero everywhere else. Calculate the probability of finding
the electron in the following regions.
i)
between 0 and w/4, ii) between w/4 and w/2, iii) betwee
ELEC321, LAB#2
LAB #2
THE Si AND GaAs CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
The Objectives:
1. To study the crystal structures of the Si and GaAs using the simulation package.
The Theory:
Among the semiconductor materials Si and GaAs are the most popular. These
crystals partic
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, Fourth Edition
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The Crystal Structure of Solids
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his text deals with the electrical properties and characteristics of semiconductor materials and devices. The electrical properties of
Lab manual 3
Measurement of majority carrier concentration and mobility using simulation.
A.
Introduction:
When a semiconductor sample is subjected to mutually perpendicular
electric and magnetic field, Hall voltage develops in a direction that is perpend
ELEC321, LAB #4
LAB # 4
THE PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY OF SILICON AND THE LIFE-TIME OF
EXCESS MINORITY CARRIERS
THE OBJECTIVES:
1- To illustrate the photoconductive property of the silicon.
2- To measure the lifetime of the excess minority carriers in silicon.
THE
Elec 321, Midterm, Fall 2004
Time : 1h:05 mins.
Only non-programmable calculators are allowed.
Mass of free electron: 9.1 x 10-31 Kg
Plancks constant, h :6.625 x 10-34J-s
-23
Boltzmanns constant k: 1.38 x 10 J/K
Eg = 1.42 eV for Ga As, and 1.12eV for sili
ELEC321, LAB#5
LAB # 5
THE PHOTODIODE AND THE SOLAR CELL
THE OBJECTIVES:
1. To investigate the characteristics of the Silicon PN-junction in diodes and solar cells.
THE THEORY:
The PN-junction is formed when a P-type and an N-type semiconductor are brough
ELEC321, LAB #1
LAB #1
THE CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND MILLER INDICES
THE OBJECTIVES:
1. To study simple crystal lattices using a simulation packages.
THE THEORY:
Solid state semiconductor technology has brought valuable systems within our
reach. These advances i
Introduction to Quantum Properties
of Solid State Devices
Principles of Quantum Mechanics
1) The principle of Energy Quanta:
Experiments which showed inconsistency
between experimental results and classical
theories:
Principles of Quantum Mechanics
Therma
174
Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices
C
5
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Carrier Transport Phenomena
I
n the previous chapter, we considered the semiconductor in equilibrium and determined electron and hole concentrations in the conduction and valence band
Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles, Fourth Edition
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Introduction to Quantum
Mechanics
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he goal of this text is to help readers understand the operation and characteristics of semiconductor devices. Ideally, we would lik
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Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices
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Introduction to the Quantum
Theory of Solids
I
n the last chapter, we applied quantum mechanics and Schrodingers wave equation to determine the behavior of electrons in the presence of
124
Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices
C
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The Semiconductor in
Equilibrium
S
o far, we have been considering a general crystal and applying to it the
concepts of quantum mechanics in order to determine a few of the characteri
Assignment 3:
1) Solve the following problems from chapter 3 of the textbook.
3.13, 3.14,
2) a) Calculate the density of states of a bulk material at an energy of 0.1eV.
b) Calculate the density of states of electrons moving in a constant background
poten
OBJECTIVES:
The objective of this experiment is to study the structure of Simple Cubic (SC), Face Centered Cubic (FCC)
and Body Centered Cubic (BCC) crystal using a Crystallography simulation package.
INTRODUCTION:
There are 3 crystal structures:
Simple C
OBJECTIVES:
To determine type of conductivity of a semiconductor material (n- or p-type).
To determine the concentration of majority carriers.
To determine the mobility of majority carriers (n or p).
INTRODUCTION:
Hall Effect is a consequence of the force
OBJECTIVES:
To build the unit cell of Si and GaAs using a Crystallography simulation package and study their crystal
structures.
INTRODUCTION:
Silicon is composed of single species of atoms and has a diamond crystal structure. Gallium Arsenide is
composed
ELEC321 1
Extraproblems
ELEC 321
Extra problems
Subjects: Crystal Properties, Quantum Mechanics, energy bands, and charge carrier in
semiconductors.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
The lattice constant of Si crystal is 5.43 . Calculate the number o
1) Consider an electron with a wavefunction given by
2
2z
w
w
<z<
sin
w
w
2
2
The wavefunction is zero everywhere else. Calculate the probability of finding
the electron in the following regions.
i)
between 0 and w/4, ii) between w/4 and w/2, iii) betwee
Chapter 6
Lecture Notes
Semiconductors in Nonequilibrium Conditions
Excess electrons in the conduction band and excess holes in the valence band
may exist in addition to the thermal-equilibrium concentrations if an external
excitation is applied to the se
The Semiconductor in Equilibrium
Equilibrium or thermal equilibrium:
No external forces such as voltages, electric fields, magnetic fields or
temperature gradient are acting on the semiconductor. All properties of the
semiconductor will be independent of
Classification of Solid Structures
Represents an atom or a
molecule
Amorphous: Atoms (molecules)
bond to form a very short-range
(few atoms) periodic structure.
Crystals: Atoms (molecules) bond to
form a long-range periodic structure.
The constant bonds (
Concordia University
Example Formula Sheet
ELEC321
Chapter 1:
For FCC a 2 2 R , For BCC
a
4R
3
and for diamond, a
8R
3
Surface area for cubic crystal, for (100) a , for (110) 2a 2 , and for (111) is
2
3a 2
2
Chapter 2:
h
mv 2
, px , Et , and K.E. of a pa
Assignment 2
1. Solve the following questions from chapter 2 of the textbook;
2.6, 2.7, 2.10, 2.12, 2.23, 2.25, 2.29, 2.32
2. Sketch the state function of an electron traveling in a potential with a function shown in
the figure below. (Assume E<V1, V1 is
Assignment 2
1. Solve the following questions from chapter 2 of the textbook;
2.6, 2.9, 2.10, 2.12, 2.23, 2.25, 2.26, 2.29, 2.33
2. Sketch the state function of an electron traveling in a potential with a function shown in
the figure below. Assume:
a) E<V