Review distance and leveling
What kind of instruments can be used?
Precision vs. accuracy
What type of errors exist?
Can all errors be eliminated/reduced?
How do you eliminate/reduce errors?
What is leveling?
What are elevation?1
What is needed to measure

Review and Lab Reports
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Lab Reports
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n
n
n
n
One report per group (submitted by the team leader)
First page title, date and group members
Second page - ENCS expectation of originality form thoroughly
filled-up and signed
Table of Contents
Body of the re

(3) Leveling
General Terms
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n
n
n
n
n
Horizontal line
Level line
Vertical line
Vertical distance
Elevation
Mean sea level
2
1
Leveling Concepts
3
Leveling Process
4
2
Effects of Curvature and
Refraction
5
Types of Surveying Levels
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n
n
Automatic level
D

(5) Traverse Surveys
Types of Traverses
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Open Traverse using deflection angles.
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Closed traverse using interior angles.
1
Open Traverse
Field Notes for an Open traverse
2
Closed Traverse
Angle Adjustments- Closed Traverse
3
Location of a Point
Rectangul

(7) Topographic Surveying
and Mapping
Maps and Plans
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Maps.
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n
Intermediate scale, 1:2,000 to 1:10,000.
Small scale, 1:20,000 to 1: 1,000,000.
In recent times, maps are usually a product of
GIS programs.
Maps and Plans
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Plans
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n
Intermediate scale, 1:

7/19/16
(2) Distance Measurement
Techniques of Feature Location
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n
n
Positioning, using the global positioning
system (GPS).
Distance and angle measurements.
Scaling from maps, plans and aerial
photographs.
1
7/19/16
Three Types of Distances
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Vertical
n

(4) Angles and Directions
Types of Vertical Angles
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n
n
Vertical angles
Zenith angles
Nadir angles
1
Three Reference Directions
- Angles
Meridians
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n
n
Geographic meridian
Magnetic Meridian
Grid Meridian
2
Geographic and Grid Meridians
Horizontal Angles

Vertical curves
Vertical curves follow the shape of a parabola
Provide a smooth grade line with gradual changes,
consistent with the terrain and type of highway
Avoid hidden dips (i.e. dips that drivers cannot see)
Whenever possible, flatten the grade nea

(6) Highway Curves
Highway Design
Functional planning
Highway geometrics
Circular Curve Terminology
BC
PC
&
EC
PT
Circular Curve Geometry
Relationship Between R and D
Circular Curve Equations
Deflection Angles
GIVEN
Deflection Angles
20-m stations along t

Review and Lab Reports
Three classes of surveying: preliminary,
layout and control
Locations ties: method to identify the
position of a unknown point with respect
to a given (known) reference.
Stationing: dimensions measured along a
baseline (0+00, 12+897

(4) Angles and Directions
Types of Angles
Vertical angles
Zenith angles
Nadir angles
1
Three Reference Directions
- Angles
Meridians
Geographic meridian
Magnetic Meridian
Grid Meridian
2
Geographic and Grid Meridians
Horizontal Angles
Interior angles
Exte

Magnetic Directions
Does the compass needle points to the
Magnetic north?
The Earth's magnetic field is a vector
quantity. At each point in space it has a
strength and a direction
Three orthogonal strength components (X, Y,
and Z);
The total field strengt

5/9/2011
Example
Complete the set of differential leveling
notes in the table below:
Example
Reduce the set of differential leveling notes in the table
below. Assume a distance leveled of 1000m, for what order
of survey do the results qualify if the eleva

Project
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Sketch a general layout of the given traverse and building.
Make a detailed sketch of the building and the surrounding
features.
Measure the details of the building using the tape.
Locate all control points on the buildi