LECTURE NOTES
on
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Eusebius Doedel
LOGIC
Introduction. First we introduce some basic concepts needed in our
discussion of logic. These will be covered in more detail later.
A set is a collection of objects (or elements).
EXAMPLES :
the

Predicates and Quantiers
Statements involving variables, like
x2 x + 2
The American city is polluted.
are not propositions, since their truth values
depend on the values of the variable involved.
For what value of x?
Which city?
1
Nevertheless, we sometim

Propositional Equivalences
A tautology is a compound proposition that is
True for all truth values of the atomic propositions in it. Example:
p p
A contradiction is a compound proposition
that is False for all truth values of the atomic
propositions in it

Discrete Mathematics
Discrete mathematics is devoted to the study
of discrete or distinct unconnected objects.
Classical mathematics deals with functions
on real numbers. Real numbers form a
continuous line. Some calculus techniques
apply only to contin

21/09/2015
Chapter 3
Site Investigation
Part 2
CIVI 231, Geology for Engineers, Fall
2015
1
Need good knowledge
of the soil conditions
proposed
structure
?
Problem Soils
e.g., reactive clays, soft
soils, sink holes, etc.
2
CIVI 231, Geology for Engineers,

9/21/2015
Chapter 2
Site Investigation
Part 1
CIVI-231, Geology for Engineers, Fall
2015
CIVI-231, Geology for Engineers, Fall 2015
1
2
1
9/21/2015
Site Investigation:
The information obtained provides a description
of the sites physical characteristics

9/21/2015
Chapter 1
An Introduction to
Geology and Plate
Tectonics
1 1
CIVI-231, Geology- for Engineers, Fall
2015
The Science of Geology
Geology geo earth, logos
discourse
Physical geology studies
Earth materials; seeks to
understand processes that
ope

Concordia University
Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering
CIVI-231 Geology for Civil Engineers
Fall 2015
Instructors:
Dr.P.Nekoovaght, Phone: 848-2424, Office EV006.183
Email: p.nekoovaght@concordia.ca
Office Hours: Thursdays 16:00