Separation anxiety disorder 7-8 years
When does anxiety (fear)
become a disorder?
Fear is a normative developmental event
Example: Distress when mom leav
Structure of DSM-V
DSM-5 Organizational Structure
Neurodevelopmental Disorders (DSM-IV: Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or
Are anxiety disorders
Prevalence of any anxiety disorder in children and
adolescents is high (5.7% - 17.7%)
Estimates of comorbidity are approximately 60%, with
disorders like GAD
Treatment and prevention
Treatment of antisocial behavior
No simple treatment
The most important principle: the earlier the better
Number of techniques used
Parent training program
Example of an empirically-validated psychological treatment
CBT aims to understand how maladaptive thinking contributes to
anxiety, and attempts t
approach: Attentional bias
Normal Stroop task
Emotional Stroop task:
Most people view ADHD as having its origins in neurobiological
The areas of interest include frontal-striatal pathways (circuits
linking the pr
Some of Panksepps points can be
tested using empirical data in humans
Does stimulant use predict
later substance use
et al, 2013
Stimulant use and substa
Is there evidence of this pattern?
(Burke et al, 2010)
ODD predicts longitudinally the development of CD, even when
controlling for subclinical CD symptoms
CD predicts longitudinally ASP
% of kids with CD
7 to 17 years who
go on to develop
Risk Mechanisms and genetic influences.
Focus on the why and the how
What are the major influences on child
SOCIETY (EDUCATION, HEALTH CARE, EARLY ENVIRONMENT)
interview with Sir Michael Rutter
Rutter (2009)- What should
A Few Examples
Relationship between parents disciplinary practices in preschool and
teacher-rated externalizing scores in grade 3, 4 years later
Ho, Bluestein, & Jenkins, Developmental Psychology, 2008. National
Longitudinal Survey o
Can science inform social policy?
Do G X E interactions help in developing
What is the public health message?
These findings not always replicated
Furthermore, the interaction betwee
Monday Sept 12
Abnormality is based on the developmental context!
Kid with adhd symptoms who is falling behind in school = maladaptiveness
Irrationality- hallucinations. Doesnt always apply, people can be irrational but not predict
Psychopathology- develops through environment and genes
Classification? Not that simple! *
Treatment? Treating child only? We should think about treating family, society? Issues about the
way school is structured for ADHD for ex.
The assumption: Children are responsive to their environment, and
therefore good programs (subsidized enriched daycare) should benefit all
Argument (using a metaphor): Some children are orchids and others are
Orchids thrive in respo
Does violence portrayed in the media
(television, gaming, internet) cause
aggression and violence in youth?
Proposed links are things like.
This the paper
referred to in the
What do we want to accomplish in this
What is abnormal behavior in childhood and adolescence, and why?
Biopsychosocial and developmental psychopathology
Is everything heritable?
What are the implications that, with some exceptions, estimates of
shared environmental influence are quite low?
What are the implications that, with some exceptions, estimated of
non-shared environmental influence
Diagnostic Classification and Measurement
How are bird watching and psychiatry similar endeavours?
n of birds
Psychiatric classification of children
Often distracted by extraneous stimuli
Often does not seem to listen when spoken