The German alphabet and some remarks on pronunciation
The German alphabet is essentially the same as the English one:
There are three additional vowels or Umlaute
is similar to
Adverbs - Adverbien
Adverbs provide more specific information about an action.
Consider this statement:
The information provided in slot 3 of the statement obviously tells us more about the
time of the action expressed t
Die Artikel the articles
Articles aid a speaker to identify objects in reality.
Consider the difference in meaning between the following two English sentences:
I took a book from a shelf in a library.
I took the book from the shelf in the library.
Der Genus des Substantives The gender of nouns
The gender of a noun is determined by semantic, phonetic and morphological aspects. The
following paragraphs will explain these aspects in a little more detail.
However, before you read through these sections
General reference to food
Just like in English, there is no need to use the article together with the food item, if you refer to it
in a general manner, e.g.
Franz Kaiser isst gern Brot.
(Franz Kaiser likes eating bread/(some) bread)
Der Plural - the plural form
The plural form of nouns seems to be a rather difficult trait of the German language. Unlike in
English, where the letter -s is the regular plural marker, German possesses five such plural
For four out of the five, on
Der Akkusativ the accusative case
The accusative case (der Akkusativ) is the second case of the German language that you are
The nominative case, as seen earlier, is the grammatical treatment applied to names, nouns and
pronouns when they a
Expressing preference: GEFALLEN und FINDEN
Lesen Sie die Gesprche zwischen Thomas und Richard.
Take a close look at the use of the expressions gefallen and finden .
Kennst du die Band Die rzte aus Deutschland?
Ja. Sie machen Rockmusik, od
Verneinung mit nicht und kein Negation with nicht and kein
German makes use of two different types of forms for expressing the lack of something,
What you already know .
You have already learned that you use kein or keine to negate a
Trennbare Verben Separable verbs
Separable verbs are types of verbs that consist of a verb plus a particle that precedes it.
As you can see above, the infinitive is always written together as a single word. Thus
Possessive articles Possessivartikel im Nominativ
Just like in English possessive articles in German always precede a noun to indicate who owns it,
mein Opa my granddad
mein Kind my child
meine Oma his grandmother
meine Geschwister my siblings
Countries and nationalities Lnder und Nationalitten
Most countries (das Land/die Lnder) and continents (der Kontinent/die Kontinente) are not
accompanied by any article. Their grarmmatical gender, however, is neuter, e.g.
Deutschland hat 80 Millionen Einw
Subject person pronouns Personalpronomen im Nominativ
The words in the table below are called subject person pronouns, because they:
represent the subject of a sentence and thus control the conjugation of the verb, e.g.
Er ist Student, aber ich bin Polizi
Greetings - Begrung
Depending on the time of the day and the type of relationship you enjoy with a person, the
greeting you employ will vary:
Formal and respectful relationship
Guten Morgen! (good morning)
Guten Tag! (good afternoon)
Guten Abend! (good ev
Polite questions and answers
The following questions (Fragen) and answers (Antworten) will enable you to get to know
someone you meet for the first time and to introduce yourself in turn.
Take note that all of these questions are in the formal and respect
Form of address Anrede du oder Sie?
In German exists just like in modern French, modern Spanish and the English language at the
time of Shakespeare a distinction between polite and familiar forms of address.
Familiar address is represented via the pronoun
Sentence structure - Satzbau
Word order in a German sentence can be regarded as both rigid and flexible.
The placement of the verb in both statements (Aussagestze) and questions (Fragen) is
extremely important and crucial in the construction of a correct
Verb conjugation in the present tense Konjugation der Verben im Prsens
First of all, dont panic! Changing the forms of the verb is less of a mess than you may think. Just
because you are not be used to it in the languages you grew up with, does not mean t
Dialogstruktur: Sich vorstellen
Take a look at the following dialogue and take note of the different conversational moves the
speakers engage make. In particular, pay attention to the level of politeness used here. Since
these two adults have not met each