474
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
Table B.12. Significance of the symbols for reference (1)
Appendix B: ANSI and ISO Turning Indexable Inserts and Holders
Fig. B.6. Case 2. Inserts with an even number of sides and rounded corners
Fig.
2 Basics Definitions and Cutting Tool Geometry, Single Point Cutting Tools
119
a 2 = i tan n 2 k
(2.120)
m=j
(2.121)
As these vectors are coplanar (belong to the same plane), their scalar triple product
(Appendix C) is equal to zero, i.e.,
0
m ( a 2 a ) =
456
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
where K is the strength coefficient (N/m2) and n is the hardening exponent of the
work material, is the chip compression ratio [13, 18], and Aw is uncut chip crosssectional area (m2):
Aw = d w f
(A.15)
Viktor P. Astakhov, PhD
Michigan State University
Department of Mechanical Engineering
2453, Engineering Building
East Lansing
MI 488241226
USA
astvik@gmail.com
ISSN 18605168
ISBN 9781849960526
eISBN 9781849960533
DOI 10.1007/9781849960533
Rs =
n
i + i
xyi
+
i=
zyi
i + i
xyi
i + i
i=
n
i=
xyi
i=
n
=
n
i + i
5 Deephole Tools
351
This sheme is used when the workpiece has a shape that not suitable for its
rotation. The use of this method imposes special requirements on the accuracy of
the
52
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
[45] Atkins AG (2003) Modelling metal cutting using modern ductile fracture mechanics:
qualitative explanations for some longstanding problems. Int. J. of Mech. Science
45:373396
[46] Sampath WS, Shaw M
32
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
1.5 Fundamental Laws of Metal Cutting
1.5.1 Optimal Cutting Temperature Makarows Law
1.5.1.1 Formulation
The First MetalCutting Law (Makarows law) formulated by Astakhov in the
following form:
For a gi
378
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
Thus the flank angles in the back, Pp the assumed working, Pf planes correlate as
tan p r =
tan f r
(5.45)
tan p 23
Consider now the location part ad of the total flank angle . As seen from
SECTION pp
Appendix C: Basics of Vector Analysis
511
Example C.3.
Problem: Lets the coordinate system shown in Fig. C.11 is TmachS of a drill
while cutting edge AB is a part of the major cutting edge (Chapter 4). Lets the
approach angle p = 30o. Find a directional
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
219
4.5.3 Drilling Torque
The drilling torque is a function of the work material properties, drill diameter and
geometry, and the drilling regime. Among these factors, the drill geometry and
drilling regime can be varied
424
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
10
13
9
12
7
12
8
11
P
4
1
5
3
6
2
Fig. 5.74. Model of MWF flow in a gundrill with the auxiliary side passage
Flank adjacent to the
outer cutting edge
Fig. 5.75. Uniform MWF elementary flows in the bot
410
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
SECTION BB
SECTION AA
8
A
20
B
15
25
7.94
SECTION CC
B
31.75
A
116
7
D
25
1.8
View D
C
C
1.2
Fig. 5.59. Gundrill with parameters calculated in Example 5.3
5.6.4.7 Example 5.4
Problem: Let the given
3 Fundamentals of the Selection of Cutting Tool Geometry Parameters
(a)
155
(b)
Fig. 3.21. Wear of the detachable supporting pads of a deephole drill: (a) wear patter when
backtaper is optimal, and (b) wear patter when backtaper is small.
BUE (deposit) o
Appendix D: Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics
543
machining with shallow cutting feeds. Moreover, curving the chip, the additional
force Fjet reduces the toolchip contact length and improves the cooling conditions
at the toolchip interface
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
339
[36] Webb PM (1993) The threedimensional problem of twist drilling. Int. J. of Prod. Res.
31(5):12471254
[37] Fujii S, DeVries MF, Wu, SM (1970) An analysis of drill geometry for optimum drill
design by computerI: D
440
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
than, any other system which satisfies the given constraints. The term suboptimal is
used to describe any system, which is not optimal (with respect to the given
performance measure and constraints). T
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
249
Fig. 4.47. Enhancing chip rigidity by providing ribs on the drill rake faces
However, it is often not sufficient to obtain the desirable chip shape and to avoid
significant force due to chip interaction with the side
400
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
Fig. 5.54. Graphic modeling of the conditions of drill free penetration
5.6.4.5 Conditions of Free Penetration
To understand these conditions, one should ask a logical question: How many
flank planes a
Appendix D: Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics
531
point b corresponds to the inlet of the coolant unit, R2 represents its
resistance.
a
+ I
V
m
I
R1
R10
b
k
R2
R9
c
i
R3
R8
d
h
R4
e
R7
g
R5
R6
f

Fig. D.8. Electric analogy of the gundrillin
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
313
The normal to each flank plane can be determined using the cross product of two
known vectors belonging to this plane (Fig. C.7, Appendix C). In the considered
case, the normal to plane R is defined as cross product o
362
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
resistance. Another problem, however, has emerged: how to select the proper grade
for the given application from the great variety of available grades? Experience
shows that the improper selection of e
4
Straight Flute and Twist Drills
Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.
Albert Einstein (18791955)
Abstract. This chapter discusses classification, geometry, and design of straight flute and
twist drills. It argues that the design, manuf
488
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
There are two options:
Single digit letter symbol see Table B.26. Designates the length of the cutting
edge in comparison to the standard length.
or threedigit symbol if the tip length is not equal to
380
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
Because vectors afr, pm, and avr belong to the same flank plane, their scalar triple
product is equal to zero (Appendix C), i.e.,
a f r ( p m av r ) =
cos f r
0
cos ad p r cos v r
0
cos p 23
sin ad
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
207
Long drills drills having lengthtodiameter ratio exceeds 10.
Classification based on number of flutes
Singleflute drills those having only one flute, e.g., gundrills.
Twoflute drills those having two chip removal
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
305
Fig. 4.101. Chisel edge geometry parameters for the grind shown in Fig. 4.100
Figure 4.102 shows a drill ground with the geometry parameters shown in Fig.
4.100. As can be seen, the chisel edge is formed by two adjace
Appendix D: Hydraulic Losses: Basics and Gundrill Specifics
539
Fig. D.14. Crosssections of two carbide sticks having the same diameter (8.85 mm)
SECTION AA
ENLARGED
A
A
dcp
vcp
Bottom of the
hole being
drilled
Fig. D.15. Interaction of the MWF jet leav
4 Straight Flute and Twist Drills
279
Fig. 4.78. Influence of the distance cct and the helix angle, d on the distribution of the
normal rake angle
4.8.3.5 Example 4.1
Compare the distributions of the TmachS rake angle along the major cutting edge
(lip)
416
Geometry of Singlepoint Turning Tools and Drills
end in the axial direction. This flank and the bottom of the hole being drilled form
the step shown in Fig. 5.65c. In the simplified stepped (square) gundrill when the
outer and inner cutting edges are