240 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
dR/dt and, assuming the nucleus is spherical, the volume of the recrystallized nucleus is 4 /3G3 t t0 3 .
If the number of nuclei that form in a time increment
dt is N dt per unit volume of unrecrys
150 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Figure 5.31 (a) Schematic formation of convergent beam diffraction pattern in the backfocal plane of the objective lens,
(b) and (c) h1 1 1 i CBDPs from Si; (b) zero layer and HOLZ (Higher Order Lau
Corrosion and surface engineering
Figure 12.8 Pourbaix diagrams for (a) Ti, (b) Fe, (c) Ni, (d) Al. The clear regions are passive, the heavily-shaded regions
corroding and the lightly-shaded regions immune. The sloping lines represent the upper and lo
100 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Figure 4.28 Schematic representation of slip in a 1 1 1
plane of a fcc crystal.
then given by
b2 b3 cos 60
from which it can be seen that the width of the stack
70 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Figure 3.33 Vertical section through ternary system shown
in Figure 3.31.
18.104.22.168 Application to dielectric ceramics
The phase diagram for the MgOAl2 O3 SiO2 system
(Figure 3.36) has proved extremely
290 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Figure 8.34 Inuence of hydrogen on fracture behaviour showing (a) time-dependence and (b) temperature-dependence.
The inclusion in equation (8.28) of the grain-size
term, d1/2 , in combination with
Modern alloy developments
Figure 9.8 Microstructure and fracture mode of silicon spheroidal graphite (SG) iron, (a) and (b) as-cast and (c) and
(d) austempered at 350 C for 1 h (L. Sidjanin and R. E. Smallman, 199
340 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
does not confer conductivity. In Type IIb diamonds, the
principal impurity is boron (Z D 5). Measured atomic
concentrations of boron are often less than 0.5 10 6 .
Each boron atom can contribute onl
310 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Rapidly-cooled alloys containing -stabilizers form
martensitic from the -phase, whereas slower cooling rates favour formation by a nucleation and
growth process. Several morphologies of can be produ
90 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
dF/dV D Energy/volume stress
D kT/b3 [ln c/c0 ]
where dV is the volume associated with dn vacancies
and b3 is the volume of one vacancy. Inserting typical
values, KT ' 1/40 eV at room temperature
Defects in solids
Figure 4.2 Equilibrium concentration of vacancies as a
function of temperature for aluminium (after Bradshaw and
grain boundary or the extra half-plane of an edge dislocation. Such sites are termed vacancy sources and
330 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
The search for greater efciency in automotive
engines, petrol and diesel, has focused attention on
regions of the engine that are subjected to the most
severe conditions of heat and wear. Sialons ha
220 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
the continuity of the metal is maintained during plastic deformation must mean that each grain is deformed
into a shape that is dictated by the deformation of its
neighbours. Such behaviour will, of
80 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
simple cells are necessary to describe the complete
ordered arrangement. In this structure any individual
atom is surrounded by the maximum number of
unlike atoms and the aluminium atoms are arranged
260 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
small clusters of atoms in the lattice which act as nuclei
for the precipitate. However, the size of the precipitate
becomes ner as the temperature at which precipitation
occurs is lowered, and exte
Mechanical behaviour of materials
whole of the specimen hardens. After about 5% of the
life, slip becomes localized and persistent slip bands
appear; they are termed persistent because they reappear and are not permanently removed by electropolishing. Thu
120 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
loops, which eventually appear as dislocation tangles.
Neutron bombardment produces similar effects to particle bombardment, but unless the dose is greater
than 1021 neutrons/m2 the loops are difcul
140 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
metal with fcc structure shows that absent reections
will occur when the indices of that reection are
mixed, i.e. when they are neither all odd nor all even.
Thus, the corresponding diffraction patt
110 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
Table 4.2 Dislocations in structures
3 h1 1 2 0i
3 h1 0 1 0i
h0 0 0 1i
c2 D 8a2 /3
from one atomic site to another the resultant dislocations are i
The characterization of materials
Figure 5.37 Direct observation of dislocations. (a) Pile-up in a zinc single crystal (after Gilman, 1956, p. 1000).
(b) Frank-Read source in silicon (after Dash, 1957; courtesy of John Wiley and Sons).
Defects in solids
layers of the Ll2 structure, with different size atoms
for each layer. The three vectors shown give rise
to the formation of different planar faults; a/2[1 0 1]
is a super-partial producing apb, a/6[2 1 1] produces
the familiar stacking
180 Modern Physical Metallurgy and Materials Engineering
contribution to the electrical resistance. Accordingly,
superlattices below Tc have a low electrical resistance,
but on raising the temperature the resistivity increases,
as shown in Figure 6.18a fo
The characterization of materials
5.1 Tools of characterization
Determination of the structural character of a
material, whether massive in form or particulate,
crystalline or glassy, is a central activity of
materials science. The general appro
The physical properties of materials
with high-voltage equipment and can protect it from
transient voltage spikes or overload.
Figure 6.25 Schematic diagram of a pnp transistor.
and collector respectively, as shown in Figure 6.
Mechanical behaviour of materials
deep-drawing properties in terms of strain ratio measurements made in a uniaxial tensile test as high R and
low R. Much research is aimed at improving forming
properties through texture control.
7.7 Macroscopic plasti
Word Bank T2W5
1. crusade (noun): a vigorous campaign for political, social, or religious change.
Moore is hardly alone in his crusade.
2. earmark (verb): designate (funds or resources) for a particular purpose.
Congress currently earmarks about $150 bill
1. muffle (verb): to wrap with something to deaden or prevent sound.
2. asylum (noun): an institution for the maintenance and care of the mentally ill, orphans, or other
persons requiring specialized assistance. /
International Law: a refug
Word Bank T2W4
1. telling (adj.): having a striking or revealing effect; significant
One of the most telling economic events since the financial crisis has gone almost entirely unnoticed.
2. default (noun): failure to fulfil an obligation, especially to r
Word Bank T1W10
1. irascible (adj.): easily provoked to anger; very irritable(eg. an irascible old man);
characterized or produced by anger (eg. an irascible response)
But everything changed in 2002, when Turks voted the Justice and Development Party (AKP
Word Bank T2W6
1. scrap (verb): abolish or cancel (a plan, policy, or law).
2. capital punishment (noun): Capital punishment or the death penalty is a legal process whereby a
person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
It matters, als
Theoretical Framework for the Solution of Problems in Rotational
Dynamics (by Assoc. Prof. Chew Lock Yue)
Note 1: In this document, (1) the subscript O refers to the torque applied to the object,
or angular momentum of the object, about the point O; (2) t
Lecture 15 and 16
Center of Mass and the Motion of a System of
Center of Mass
The center of mass has the following characteristics:
It is a special point in a system that moves as if the tot
Lecture 11 and 12
Energy and Energy Transfer
Potential Energy and the Conservation of Mechanical
Conservative and Non-conservative forces
Potential energy is the energy associated with the
configuration of a
Word Bank T2W3
1. societal (adj.): relating to society or social relations
In progressive politics, most of the action has moved on from the civil rights struggles to a focus on
societal or "structural" racism.
2. microaggression (noun): theory that hypot
Word Bank Term1 Week9
1. ravage (verb): to work havoc upon; damage or mar by ravages
(noun): devastating or destructive action
- The remarkable birth of a baby in a typhoon-ravaged part of the Philippines becomes a symbol of