General Histology and Embryology
1. Introduction to Anatomy, organisation of the human body, anatomical/medical
2. Structure of the eukaryotic cell. Structure and functions of organelles.
3. Microscopic, Histochemical and Electron Microscop
Monthly cycles that prepare the reproductive system for
Ovarian cycle - FSH and LH from anterior pituitary
The cycle in which an oocyte matures, erupts from the ovary
Average length of cycle is 28 days
During first half of the cycl
Anatomy Specific Objectives
By the end of the course, students should be able to:
Discuss the different methods used in the study of cells and the preparation of tissue for
Describe the ultrastructure of an animal cell.
Discuss the morphology
Epithelial (Covering) Tissue (See Figure EP 1- 10):
Epithelial tissue covers the external and internal surfaces, including cavities and tubes of the
body. Three different shapes of cells are encountered in the epithelium. These are:
Cell division is the process by which cells replicate in order to replace cell loss, repair tissue damage and
reproduce the organism.
Two types of cell division are encountered in the Eukaryotic cell viz. Mitotic and Meiotic divisions.
Basal Lamina/Basement Membrane
Both structures are connective tissue condensation found at the interphase between the connective tissue
and other body tissues
Features/Composition of Basal Lamina:
It is only visible under the electron microscope
Resolution in Microscopy
Determines the quality (Clarity and richness) of
an image viewed with the microscope
Resolution power of the light Microscope (LM) =
This permits image resolution between 1000 to
Resolution power of the El
TISSUES OF THE BODY
Tissues are formed from the assemblage of cells
and intercellular materials in various propor@ons
in which one component predominates.
In nervous @ssue as an example, nerve cells
ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE EUKARYOTIC CELL
The cell is the living functional unit of all
An organism may be composed of one cell only
(Unicellular) e.g. Bacteria and Algae or of
several cells (Multicellular) e.g. Man.
The cell exists in two forms
The Connective/Supporting Tissue
The connective tissue is an assemblage of
specialized supportive cells in a gel-like extracellular
matrix of organic material and fibres in which the
extracellular materials predominate.
It is mesenchymal in origin.
INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
What is an organ and organ system
Define tissue and types of tissues
Define a cell
Body chemistry and elements, compounds and mixtures