1. An alternative definition for a distributed system is that of a collection of independent
computers providing the view of being a single system, that is, it is completely hidden
from users that there are even multiple computers. Give an example where t
SQL Join Operators
Join operation merges rows from two tables and returns the rows with one of the following:
Have common values in common columns
Meet a given join condition
Equality or inequality
Have common values in common columns o
1. Explain the meaning of the term granularity in reference to access control. Discuss the
tradeoff between granularity and efficiency.
Granularity is defined as an expression of the relative size of a data object. Fine granularity
refers to small data ob
1. A security policy would include all of the following EXCEPT
B. Scope statement
C. Audit requirements
2. Which one of the following is an important characteristic of an information security policy?
A. Identifies major functi
We ran Wireshark and we did a capture of packets when we accessed a web page (highlighted in
gray). This screenshot is showing the PCs and routers MAC addresses. The information that is
shown above indicates which MAC address is the source and w
Block and Steam ciphers
1. Contrast block and steam ciphers
The basic idea of a block cipher is to divide text in relatively large blocks, typically 64 or 128
bits long, and encode each block separately. The same encryption key is used for each block and
Section 1 (True-False)
Circle T if the statement is true or circle F if the statement is false. (15 Marks)
1. T F
In the OSI Reference Model, the Internet layer permits the hosts to inject
packets into any network and have them travel independently to the
Describe, compare and contrast the OSI and the TCP/IP Reference Models.
The OSI Model
The OSI model is a standard of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). It
is a general-purpose paradigm for discussing or describing how computers comm
Protocols are formal rules of behavior. In international relations, protocols minimize the
problems caused by cultural differences when various nations work together. By agreeing
to a common set of rules that are widely known and indepen
1. Download Wireshark and install it. Do a ping from one computer to another and use
Wireshark to capture the packets. Identify the different protocols used and the various
fields of the IP headers.
The main protocol that were used during this exercise is
Given the table below, write the SQL statements needed to execute the commands.
1. Give the pros and cons of implementing a system without customization.
Being able to implement a system without customization yields the most benefits and is the most cost effective
solution. The pros of using a Vanilla implementation strategy include
1. Explain expert power with reference to the dimensions of importance, scarcity, and nonsubstitutability.
Expert power is an important ability to influence other parties based on expertise and knowledge
which has no viable substitutes. Expert power in an
The process of hacking can be broken down into 5 phases:
Reconnaissance This is nothing more than the steps taken to gather as much evidence and
information on the target(s) as possible by you who wish to perform the attack not to be
confused or mixed wit
1. What are the main components of attitudes? Are these components related or
There are three main components of attitudes. These components are:
Cognitive: the opinion or belief of an attitude.
Affective: the emotional or felling segment of an
1. Describe the IPv4 and IPv6 header field. What are the differences between IPv4 and
IPv6? Which is more secure and why?
a. An Internet Protocol version 4 packet header (IPv4 packet header) contains application
information, including usage and source/des
1. Describe the how the Vector Clock works and how it addresses the shortcomings of
Lamports logical clock.
Vector Clocks are used in a distributed systems to determine whether pairs of events are
causally related. Instead of each entity storing only its
1. Which option is NOT an area of router security?
a. Physical security
b. ACL security
c. Operating System Security
d. Router Hardening
2. What threats are the most serious?
a. Inside threats
b. Outside threats
c. Unknown threats
1. The following is a list of Network Attacks. Briefly describe each and say how they can
a) Man in the middle attack: A Man-in-the-Middle attack is a type of cyber-attack where a
malicious actor inserts themselves into a conversation betwee
Describe the components of IPSec.
a. Describe how it is used in IPSec VPNs. ( Answer must include IKE, ISAKMP, AH, ESP
IPSec contains the following elements:
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP): ESP provides authentication, integrity and
1. Match each vocabulary word with its correct definition.
A. This is the collective name for all tracks having the
same number in a hard disk drive when se