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Reactions Involving Standard Solutions
ADVANTAGES OF VOLUMETRIC STANDARD SOLUTIONS
Solutions of specied molar concentrations. as dened in Chapter 12, are called standard solutions
and can be used conveniently for reactions involved in quantitat
Calculations from Chemical Equations
The balanced equation is the basis for all calculations of the quantities of substances involved in
chemical reactions. In the course of working out these numerical problems, the alert student wi
Properties of Solutions
Just as dilute gases are characterized by more or less general adherence to a group of simple laws, so
dilute solutions as a class have many properties that are determined by concentration alone, without
The numerical value of every observed measurement is an approximation. No physical measurement.
such as mass, length, time, volume. velocity, is ever absolutely correct. The accuracy (reliability) of every
Concentrations of Solutions
SOLUTE AND SOLVENT
In a solution of one substance in another substance, the dissolved substance is called the solute. The
substance in which the solute is dissolved is called the solvent. When the relative amount of
Solids and Liquids
Solids cannot be understood as well as the much simpler units of matter, the atoms and molecules.
There are some simplifying features of solids, however. which allow considerable insight into their
nature. One of these featur
Formulas and Composition Calculations
EMPIRICAL FORMULA FROM COIVIPOSITION
As dened in Chapter 2, an empirical formula expresses the relative numbers of atoms of the
different elements in a compound using the smallest integers possible. These in
hH2O =dHg xhHg =
10mm = 978.75 = 979 cmH2O
PV=nRT P, V, n, T .
(a) P , T 2 n .
(b) T n P PPP P
(cP T PDP(gP P(gP + DP(gP
n 2 . .
(d) P A2(g)+B