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PV=nRT P, V, n, T .
(a) P , T 2 n .
(b) T n P PPP P
(cP T PDP(gP P(gP + DP(gP
n 2 . .
(d) P A2(g)+B
Formulas and Composition Calculations
EMPIRICAL FORMULA FROM COIVIPOSITION
As dened in Chapter 2, an empirical formula expresses the relative numbers of atoms of the
different elements in a compound using the smallest integers possible. These in
Solids and Liquids
Solids cannot be understood as well as the much simpler units of matter, the atoms and molecules.
There are some simplifying features of solids, however. which allow considerable insight into their
nature. One of these featur
Concentrations of Solutions
SOLUTE AND SOLVENT
In a solution of one substance in another substance, the dissolved substance is called the solute. The
substance in which the solute is dissolved is called the solvent. When the relative amount of
The numerical value of every observed measurement is an approximation. No physical measurement.
such as mass, length, time, volume. velocity, is ever absolutely correct. The accuracy (reliability) of every
Properties of Solutions
Just as dilute gases are characterized by more or less general adherence to a group of simple laws, so
dilute solutions as a class have many properties that are determined by concentration alone, without
Calculations from Chemical Equations
The balanced equation is the basis for all calculations of the quantities of substances involved in
chemical reactions. In the course of working out these numerical problems, the alert student wi
Reactions Involving Standard Solutions
ADVANTAGES OF VOLUMETRIC STANDARD SOLUTIONS
Solutions of specied molar concentrations. as dened in Chapter 12, are called standard solutions
and can be used conveniently for reactions involved in quantitat
Chapter 16 - Section B - Non-Numerical Solutions
16.1 The potential is displayed as follows. Note that K is used in place of k as a parameter to avoid confusion with Boltzmanns constant.
Combination of the potential with Eq. (16.10) yields on piecewise in
Chapter 14 - Section B - Non-Numerical Solutions
14.2 Start with the equation immediately following Eq. (14.49), which can be modied slightly to read: ln i = (nG R/ RT ) (n Z ) ln Z +n +1 ni ni ni
where the partial derivatives written here and in the foll