CE2703 Course Notes 08-2
Critical Reynolds numbers = dividing points between the three types of flow
for normal cases of flow in straight pipes of uniform diameter and usual roughness,
the critical values may be taken as:
laminar < (Re = 2000) < transitio
CE2703 Course Notes 09-2
LAMINAR example
An oil (SG = 0.85, = 1.8 x 10-5 m2 s-1) in a refinery flows through a 10-cm-diameter
pipe at 0.5 Ls-1. Is the flow laminar or turbulent? Find the head loss per metre of pipe
length.
TURBULENT example1
The head loss
CE2703 Course Notes 04-4
resultant:
Compute the resultant force
FR =
FH2 + FV2
Compute the angle of inclination of FR relative to the horizontal:
F
= tan 1 V
FH
Show the resultant force, and the component forces on a diagram, and where
they act.
[cas
CE2703 Course Notes 06-5
Venturi meter
The Venturi meter is a device for measuring discharge in a pipe. It consists of a rapidly converging
section that increases the velocity of flow (and hence reduces the pressure). It then returns to
the original dimen
CE2703 Course Notes 05-2
laminar flow
turbulent flow
one-dimensional
flow
two-dimensional
flow
threedimensional flow
fluid particles move along smooth paths in laminas, or layers,
with one layer gliding smoothly over an adjacent layer
tendencies for later
CE2703 Course Notes 06-4
Applications of the Bernoulli Equation
Pitot Tube
If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body, the streamlines form a pattern like this:
Note how some move to the left and some to the right. But one, in the centre, goe
CE2703 Course Notes 01-1
Section 1: The Nature of Fluids (Mott Chapter 1)
In this course, SI (Systme Internationale dUnits) units are used. All intermediate
and final answers must have the units specified.
parameter
length
mass
time
volume
force
absolute
CE2703 Course Notes 05-6
Velocity and Acceleration
VELOCITY = V = fn(x,y,z,t)
dx
dt
dy
Vy = v =
dt
dz
Vz = w =
dt
Vx = u =
applying the chain rule of differentiation, the ACCELERATION of the fluid particle
for steady flow can be expressed as:
a =
dV
V dx
CE2703 Course Notes 02-1
Section 2: Pressure (Mott, Franzini Chapter3)
normal pressure forces present in fluids at rest - no shear stresses
the equilibrium of a static fluid requires that F = 0.
therefore, Fx = 0, Fy = 0, Fz = 0.
Consider the balance o
CE2703 Course Notes 09-1
Section 9: Energy Losses due to Friction (Mott Chapter 9)
general energy equation (Darcys Equation):
p1
V2 p
V2
+ z1 + 1 = 2 + z2 + 2 + hL
g
2g g
2g
Laminar Flow in Circular Pipes
Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipes
The friction fact
CE2703 Course Notes 04-3
(b) Force on a Curved Surface
The way to study the forces associated with submerged curved surfaces is to resolve the
net force into a horizontal and a vertical component.
[case i] fluid above the curved surface
A
Free Body
A
A
FV
Linear and Planar Atomic Densities
Linear Density:
Directional equivalency is related to the atomic linear density in the
sense that equivalent directions have identical linear densities.
The direction vector is positioned so as to pass through atom cente
MAE 3241: Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics
Extra Credit: Due Friday, March 4, 2011
Example Problem
Top-spin and back-spin are important components in tennis, allowing players to vary to a great degree the
trajectories of their shots. As we have seen, a s
ITEM
PART NUMBER
NO.
1
Main Body
2
Peeler Arm
3
Main Rod
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
.
20
21
22
23
24
Main Screw Arm
Support
Rod Support Rivet
Spring Screw
Screw Spring
Peeler Arm Spring
Pitch Fork
Connector
Black Handle +
Screw
Base
Base Screw
Department of Mechanical Engineering
MECH 3900 Systems I
Useful Commands for Matlab
Matlab is a flexible matrix solver that uses an interpreted language that you use to create simple programs and
simulations (referred to as M-files due to the m file exten