Examining the Nervous System
At the end of the day, what are two things that we should get out of an examination?
a. Lesions location and its focality
b. Root cause/etiology
What are the 6 realms to examine? Slide 5
Somatosensation is information related to the body. Were talking about general
senses available all over the body.
Cutaneous somatosensations are sensory organs on the surface of the skin.
Subcutaneous somatosensations are sensory organs below the skin
What types of things may be happening?
It could be something wrong with his hands. More specifically it would involve the
Is it a problem with holding it or reaching out to the hammer?
It could be muscle weakness. He cannot hold onto i
From left to right
Frontal, sagittal, transverse
Theses always refer to two things
Doesnt always apply but tends to:
When we talk about things projecting from the cerebral cortex down to the body (sensory
systems) they tend to be connected con
Reflexes are entirely reactive and thats why they need to be quick. In reactive mode,
speed is of the essence.
Voluntary control gives us the ability to be proactive. It is the counter-part of reflexes.
Its the ability to send high level commands to
Pupil function can tell you about cranial nerve function/damage
The eye has a pupil that opens and close to allow more or less light in. when the pupil
is bigger there is less focus however. To compensate for that we have a lens that will
help us focu
Putting clinical reference to the descending pathways that were previously talked
What happens when UMN go bad?
Spasticity is velocity-dependent event. With UPM disease/damage spasticity is a
typical manefestation that you will see clinically
UPM do not connect to muscles, they connect to LMN
Most of the effects of UPM are usually mediated by interneurons. The direct
connections of UPM and LMN are rare
Three types of UPM
UPM that starts in the cortex and go to the brain stem. Corticobulbar
Lecture 8 The motor system
From spinal cord to muscle
Alpha (lower) motor neurons
Types of MUs
Lower motor neurons
When a motor neuron is activated, we assume that all of the muscle cells that its
innervated are activating. We cannot select one muscle cell within a motor unit to
If you activate the neuron, you get all of those cells.
Fiber type is a
At the end of the day we only really care about these two things;
where is the lesion location and its focality
What is the rout cause
During the examination you need to talk to the person but also have a lab available to
This works back
The story of the sea squirt. Its important for understanding the purpose of the nervous
system it implies that the nervous system isnt there to keep you alive. Yes it plays a role in
maintaining life-sustaining function. Its there for the sole purpose