- Metabolic acidoses (shock , dehydration, renal diseases. )
- Renal impairment
- Cirrhosis of the liver
- Metabolic or respiratory alkalosis .
- Children less than 6 years of age.
Metabolic alkalosis (nau
Idvall and Ehrenberg (2002) reviewed the records of postoperative patients on the second day
following surgery. Better results were obtained from this study compared to previous studies
with regard to the use of pain assessment tools (PAT). Findings illus
Teach patient to avoid food containing tyramine (dairy products, meat,
fish, liver, some fruits (such as avocado, fig, and banana), chocolate,
and yeast extracts. If patient ate these foods, the tyramine will break
down in the GI tract (in the presence
Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain among
Surgical Nurses in Three Teaching Hospitals in Ireland
A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the award of
Master of Science by Research
Dublin City University
1- If taken for 8 weeks or more, instruct patient not to stop it suddenly
to avoid withdrawal symptoms as convulsion.
2- Keep the drug out of reach of the children.
Trade name: seconal
Class: sedative hypnotic , barbiturate type.
Advice client to report signs of side effects immediately.
Instruct client to avoid undue exposure to sun.
If the drug is being used for motion sickness, it should be taken 30 minutes
Caution the client not to drive a car or o
1- Teach patient signs of toxicity to be reported immediately.
Antirheumatic & Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents
As in aspirin, the therapeutic actions of these substances are believed to
result from the inhibition of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenas
monocytes, and eosinophils.
7. They aid the organism to cope with stressful situations e.g. trauma & sever
According to their chemical structure, they fall into 2 classes.
1- Glucocorticoids e.g. cortisone & hydrocortisone:- regulate the
To evacuate the colon prior to rectal & bowel examination
To establish normal bowel function in patients dependent
Anal fissure, fistula, ulcerative hemorrhoids.
ning of the input (Bennett 2009; Melzack and Wall 2008). In 1965, the Gate Control Theory
was published in a paper called Pain mechanisms: a new theory, in the Journal of Science.
This multidimensional pain theory, developed by Canadian psychologist, Ron
It produces direct stimulation of 1 receptors resulting in increasing
myocardial contraction, cardiac output as well as increase renal blood
flow & sodium excretion.
It exerts little effect on diastolic B.P. & induce fewer arrhythrrias that
seen on ot
- Antepartum induction or stimulation of labor.
Uterine inertia (hypotonic contractions).
For induction of labor in case of preeclampsia, eclampsia ,maternal
diabetes & other conditions.
To hasten uterine involution .
Intranasally for postpa
1. Ascertain lifestyle changes.
2. Determine clients ability to take his BP measurement.
3. Record significant changes in BP readings.
4. Advise client to adhere to low sodium diet.
5. Explain the importance of adhering to treatments plan.
6. Teach the pa
Uses: Relief of cough & upper respiratory tract (U.R.T.) problems associated with
the common cold or with allergy.
Dose: 5ml Q 6 hr.
Class. : Expectorant
Content : Each tablet contains bromhexine Hcl 8mg.
Each ml of solution ( 20 drops) contains 2
- Note: Isosorbide mononitrate given for patients with liver impairments.
Calcium channel blocking agents:
-Action: for contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle to occur, extracellular
calcium must move into the cell through openings called calcium channe
Sensitivity to drug.
Narcotic addicts since it will cause sever withdrawal symptoms.
- Nausea, vomiting, sweating, hypertension, tremors.
- If used postoperatively: tachycardia, pulmonary edema, hypo or
N = neutral solution P= stand of PZI
H= means that it is originated in Hagedrons laboratory.
Class: Intermediate acting insulin.
Kinetics: onset 3-4 hr, duration 18-28 hr.
Peak 6-12 hr.
Dose: S.C. Individualized , initial 7-26 units as a single dose 30-60
UNIVERSITY OF WEST FLORIDA
College of Arts and Sciences
SCHOOL OF ALLIED HEALTH & LIFE SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING
Course Number and Title:
NUR 3145 Pharmacology
3 semester hours
First Semester, Junior Y
rashes, and photosensitivity.
- Comatose patients.
Sever hypertension or hypotension.
Monitor vital signs before beginning therapy & at regular intervals.
Administer medication with me
Good et al. 2005; Ikonomidou, Rehnstrom and Naesh 2004; Roykulcharoen and Good 2004;
Good et al. 2002; Good et al. 2000; Good et al. 1999). Similarly, the use and application of
physical agents such as massage and heat therapy are also recommended for the
1. Diabetic patient should be very careful about symptoms of hypoglycemia.
2. Report any asthma-like symptoms.
Trade name: Normatin.
Classification: Beta-adrenergic blocking agent
Classification: beta 1 adrenoreceptr blocking drug which is a car
begins to appear like dilation of pupils, flushing of face & tachycardia.
Check dosage & measure the drug exactly.
Assess for history of asthma, glaucoma, ulcer . etc.
Determine the age of the client.
Frequent mouth care.
The Joint Commission formerly known as The Joint Commission on Accreditation of
Healthcare Organisations (JCAHO 2000) and the Australian and New Zealand College of
Anaesthetists and Faculty of Pain Management guidelines which are endorsed by the National
1- Some renal & cardiac patients.
2- Cancer with bone metastasis.
Hypercalceia characterized by lassitude fatigue, skeletal muscle weakness,
confusion & constipation.
Renal calculi, bradycardia, arrhythmias & renal impairment.
* Following P.