Protein and disease
Denaturation loss of activity
loss of tertiary structure, so loss of activity
Diseases associated with protein misfolding and changes in interactions
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
causative agents of TSEs
Muscle attachment, locomotion and body shape.
Adaptive biological system.
Detects and processes multiple inputs to produce an appropriate
Types of bone
Long Bones (Femur, Humerus)
Biochemistry deals with the four major building blocks of life:
In addition, there is a myriad of small organic (and occasionally inorganic)
molecules that play diverse roles in an org
Quicker upon secondary exposure Develops memory
Is it BIG?
Is it SMALL?
Is it INSIDE (intracellular)?
Is it OUTSIDE (extracellular)?
Adaptive immunity 2 Types
Aggregations of bio-polymers
Normally with structural or functional roles
(DNA + proteins)
(Lipids, proteins + other molecules)
Many different types
Roles Structural and functional
Autocrine GF signalling
Upregulation of receptors
HER2 in breast cancer
Mutations leading to constitutive signalling
Ras 50% of cancers
Raf 40% of melanomas
Obligate intracelluar parasites
Attach to cell receptors
endocytosis into an endosome
Fusion of viral envelope with cell membrane (enveloped viruses only)
Translocation across cell membrane
Uncoating and replication within ho
Overall impact of microbes
everywhere in huge numbers
millions living on skin
trillions living in gut
~109 bacteria per gram gut contents
70% dry weight of faeces is composed of bacteria most of these
some are beneficial
Infection & Immunity
Types of microbial interactions
- can cause disease in individuals with normal host defences
- the normal microflora (or microbiota) found normally on those parts
of the body that are exposed to the external envir
Mitosis and the Cell Cycle
Multifactorial inheritance & disease
Many diseases have a clear genetic component but are not the result
of single gene mutations or chromosome defects
These include congenital disorders (eg spina bifida, cleft lip, congenital
Darwin theory of evolution
THE FETAL PERIOD
Developmental stage from week 10 to birth
Differentiation and growth of tissues occurs.
Developmental changes vital to make organs and tissues functional.
Period of dramatic growth.
Fetus 8g at start of 3rd month but grows to ~3400g at bi
Meiosis and the Sexual Life Cycle
Meiosis and the sexual life cycle: five key concepts
1. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
2. Meiosis and fertilization and alternate in sexual lifecycles
3. Meiosis reduces the number of chrom
FERTILIZATION AND IMPLANTATION
Occurs when male genetic material from a spermatozoon fuses with
In humans, sperm and ovum fuse in upper third of uterine tube.
Sperm are deposited near to cervix.
After 30-60 mins they arri
by the end of this lecture you should be able to:
explain the roles of hydrogen bonding base pairing. and
hydrophobic interactions in stabilising the double helical
structure of DNA
Explain supercoiling in prokaryotic DNA