WORK, ENERGY
AND
KINDS OF MECHANICAL
ENERGY W5.
Students should be able to
1. define work and energy.
2. define kinetic energy and potential
energy.
3. derive the formula for the
kinetic and potential
energy. Work
When a force acts on a body and
makes it
1. Words Starting With A
Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show relation of
the person or thing to something else.
Three kinds of prepositions follow the words:
Simple Prepositions: At, by, to, in, from, of, on, up, off, with, til
1. Introduction
Definitions Of Idiom
A group of words whose meaning differs from the meanings of individual
words.
Expressions particular to a language.
Verbs followed by some particular adverb or preposition form idioms.
Explanation
Idioms are approved c
1. Progressive Waves
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The waves which transfer energy in moving away
from the source of disturbance are called progressive or travelling waves.
Kinds of progressive waves are:
Transverse Waves
Longitudinal or Compressional Waves
Further Mor
1. Induced EMF and Induced Current
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Out of the many ways to produce induced emf, Figure
illustrates one of them.
Apparatus Arrangement: Consider a straight piece of wire of length l
placed in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The wire
1. Basic Concept Of Vectors
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Vectors: Quantities which require magnitude,
suitable unit and directionfor their complete description.
Scalars: Quantities which need magnitude and proper unit for their complete
description.
Further More
1. Vect
1. Electric Current
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Electric current is the flow of charges in
a conductor in unit time.
It is denoted by I. SI unit of current is ampere. Currentis also measured
in coulomb per second. If
Q = Charge passing through any cross section of a co
1. Displacement
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Displacement is a change in position of a body from
its initial position to final.
Displacement is a vector quantity and is denoted by d.
Where d = r2 - r1
Its unit is meter ( m ) and has dimension [ L ].
The displacement can
1. Coulomb's Law
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According to Coulomb's law,
electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the
product of the magnitudes of charges and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them.
F q1q2
Mat
1. P-N Junction
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The boundary between a n-
type semiconductor and a p-type semiconductor is called p-n junction.
A pn junction is fabricated when P-type semi-conductor is joined to a n-type
semi-conductor. Electrons are in majority in n-type
1. Work Done By A Constant Force
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Work is the scalar product
of force and displacement.
Work is a scalar quantity and is denoted by W. The SI unit of work
is joule and its dimensions are [ M L2 T-2 ].
If an object is being pulled by a constan
1. Alternating Current
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Definition: Alternating current (A.C.) is the current
which is produced by a voltage source whose polarity keeps on reversing
with time.
In figure, the terminal A of the source is positive with respect to terminal B
an
1. Atomic Spectra
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When an atomic gas or vapour at much less than
atmospheric pressure is suitably excited, usually by passing an electric
current through it, the emitted radiation has a spectrum, which contains
certain specific wavelengths o
1. Magnetic Field Due To Current In A Long
Straight Wire
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When current is passed through a copper wire
then magnetic field is produced around the current carrying wire.
Experimental evidence: Take a straight, thick copper wire and pass it
ver
1. Viscosity & Stokes' Law
The frictional effect between different layers of a
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flowing fluid is called viscosity.
When different layers of fluid flow, the internal friction forces among the
layers cause fluid friction or viscosity.
Viscosity
1. Relative Motion
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Relative motion is the change in position of a body with
respect to a second body.
It can be defined as the apparent motion of a body with respect to its surroundings.
The body is in rest if it is not changing its positi
1. Classification Of Solids
Solids are the physical state of matter in which
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samples maintain their shape and size. Some highly viscous liquids, such as
cold molasses, flow so slowly that they seem to retain their size and shape
and thus app
1. Introduction To Physics
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The branch of science which deals with the study of matter and
energy, and the relationship between them is known as Physics.
The study of physics involves the investigation of:
The laws of motion
The structure o
1. Simple Harmonic Motion
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An oscillatory motion taking place under the action
of a restoring force is called simple harmonic motion.
Let a mass m attached to one end of an elastic spring which can move freely
on a frictionless horizontal sur
Lec 21 State Space Design
State Observers
Full Order State Observer
Observed State Feedback Control Law
Controller-Observer Transfer Function
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR
Lec 16 Frequency Response Design
Phase Lag Compensation
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
MAJ. DR. KUNWAR FARAZ AHMED
Design Criteria and
Specifications
Effects of a Cascad
Lec 17 Nyquist Stability Criterion
Closed Loop Stability
Contour Mapping
Nyquist Plots/Criterion
Relative Stability
Gain and Phase Margins
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
M
Lec 20 State Space Design
Controllability/ Observability
State Feedback Control Law
Stabilizability
Design Using Pole Placement
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
MAJ. DR. KUN
Lec 19 State Space Analysis
Review of Matrix Algebra (Quick)
Stability
Controllability
Observability
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
MAJ. DR. KUNWAR FARAZ AHMED
Matrix Rev
Lec 18 State Space Analysis
Definitions
State Space Representation
Transfer function
State Transformation
State Transition Matrix
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
MAJ. DR
Lec 15 Frequency Response Design
Design Criteria and Specifications
Effects of a Cascade Controller
Phase Lead Compensation
Phase Lag Compensation
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTR
Lec 14 Frequency Analysis
Rules for Constructing Bode Diagrams
Transfer Function Identification
Bode Plots and Stability
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
MAJ. DR. KUNWAR FAR
Lec 13 Frequency Analysis
Design of Feedback Control Systems 4th (Edition)
R.T. Stefani, C.J. Savant, B. Shahian, G.H. Hostetter
INSTRUCTOR:
MAJ. DR. KUNWAR FARAZ AHMED
Why use sine waves?
Frequency Analysis
Why Use Sine Waves?
One of the most commonly