MODIFIED MENDELIAN RATIOS (CONTD)
INTER ALLELIC INTERACTIONS
Genes do not merely act as separate elements producing distinct individual
effects, but they could interact with each other to give completely novel phenotypes, or
mask certain phenotypes (epist
POLYGENIC TRAITS AND POLYGENIC INHERITANCE
Polygenic traits are traits that are governed by a large number of genes. Each gene therefore
has a small influence on the character, hence the genes of a polygenic trait are sometimes
We saw in the earlier lecture that the genetic variability with respect to a character is
dependent on the number of genes governing the character and the number of alleles that
exist in the population.
CHANGES IN THE MENDELIAN RATIOS
In addition to the Mendelian F2 ratios of 3:1 in monohybrid crosses, 9:3:3:1 in dihybrid
crosses and 27:9:9:9:3:3:3:1 in trihybrid crosses, novel proportions are sometimes
obtained. These exceptions do not detract from Me
MONOHYBRID, DIHYBRID AND TRIHYBRID INHERITANCE
Monohybrid inheritance deals with the inheritance of one character at a time. By extension,
a monohybrid cross refers to a cross, which involves two varieties that differ in a particular
character. Dihybrid a
Ordered tetrad analysis
This is the method of linkage analysis (and gene mapping) used in Ascomycetes that
produce an ordered tetrad.
To understand that ordered tetrad analysis, firstly we need to understand sexual reproduction
in Ascomycetes. Fig-1 illus
. MULTIPLE ALLELES/ MULTIPLE ALLELISM
Alleles can be defined as genes that are members of the same gene pair, each allele
affecting a particular character somewhat differently than the other. This condition arises
from the presence of homologous
THREE POINT SYSTEM OF MAPPING:
This is the popular method of mapping used. In this method a third marker
gene (C) is used in between the two genes (A, B). Since the central marker
gene is exchanged when double crossovers occur, double crossovers can be
SEX DETERMINATION IN ANIMALS
IMPORTANCE OF SEX:
It is a mechanism that provides for the great amount of genetic variability
characterising natural populations, by ensuring recombination of genes between
dissimilar individuals. The evolutionary process
SEX DETERMINATION IN PLANTS
Most plants are bisexual, both sexes reside on the same plant. However some plants are
dioecious (staminate plant, pistillate plant).
Single Gene Control:
Well known examples of dioecy are usually under the genetic
CONSTRUCTING A GENETIC MAP (GENE MAPPING)
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1910) showed that linkage does exist and that linked genes are often
inherited together but may be separated by crossing over. Later Morgan (1911) found that a
definite relationship existed bet
Unordered tetrad analysis
Unordered tetrad analysis refers to linkage analysis using unordered tetrad data.
Unordered tetrads are produced in large spherical ascus sacs. Hence the meiotic products
can get mixed up. With ascomycetes that produce unordered
The University of the West Indies
Department of Life Science
Practical 6 - ANGIOSPERMS
Name and identify the major vegetative and reproductive structures of
represents flowing plants.
The flora of any countr
Characteristics of angiosperms
Angiosperm life cycle and reproduction
-structures, processes, spatial and nutritional
relationship the two generations
-Structure of the; flower, seed, ovule, fruit, ovary
Life cycles and reproduction in
Why study life cycles and reproduction
Definition of life cycle, types of life cycles
Definition of alternation of generation
Alternation of generation pattern
Structures in the life cycle
Processes in th
BIOL1262 Review of flower
What is a flower?
1. Basic flower structure review: label the structures and give the collective name for the parts.
Add additional labels and curly brackets.
2. In order to demonstrate that you understand the concept t
1. Factor which affect the relationship between genotype and phenotypes are called
modifying factors. These include; environmental influence, intra-allelic interaction and interallelic interactions. (Umaharan 20
NAME: Vinod Jankee
COURSE: BIOL 1362- Biochemistry I
a) What factors influence the rate of diffusion across a membrane
The factors affecting the rate of diffusion across a membrane are relatively the extent
of the concentra
The alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway of plant mitochondria uncouples respiration from
mitochondrial ATP production and may ameliorate plant performance under stressful
environmental conditions, such as cold temperatures, by preventing excess accumulation
Amelia Singh (812000718)
DATE: 3rd March 2015
BIOL2867 Physiology of Animals
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE HEART BEAT OF A MOSQUITO
AIM: To determine how temperature affects Q10 in ectotherms (heart rate
Name: Vinod Jankee
Student ID#: 814001191
Course Code: BIOL 2360
Topic: Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein Deficiency.
The main purpose of the essay is to discuss relevant information about the given topic of
Worksheet #1 Math 1115 - Microsoft Excel
Group 2 and Group 4- Allocation 1 -Saturday, 25th. March, 2014
Due date : Friday 31st. October, 2014 @ 5 pm
Late submissions will not be entertained.
Answer all 3 questions.
Save your completed workshe
Section I (11mks)
1) Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the first committed step of glycolysis?
a) phosphofructokinase I
d) glucose-6-phosphate isomerase
2) The conversion of pyruvate to lacta
NAME: VINOD JANKEE
ID # 814001191
COURSE: FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROBIOLOGY
COURSE CODE: 2265
LAB # 3
TITLE: IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA.
To inoculate lactose broth test tube and observe after incubation for 24-48 hou
BIOL2164 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (2017)
LAB SESSION 1
Practicing microcentrifuge and micropipette use in the lab.
Students must know and explain the following: the correct safety rules and guidelines of the Molecular Biology laboratory
the MSDS lit
BIOL1362 Nucleotides and nucleic acids tutorial
1. The composition (mole fraction) of one on the strands of a double-helical DNA is [A] = 0.19, and
[C] = 0.33. Calculate the following, if possible, if impossible, write I
a. For the same strand:
i. [T] =
BIOL2165 Tutorial 5- Molecular Genetics
1. Differentiate between theta and sigma mode of replication.
These are types of replication in bacteriophages. (1 mark)
The theta mode of replication begins at an origin by formation of a
replication bubble proceed
Amino acid tutorial
1. What is the significance of Tyr and Trp absorbing UV light strongly (esp at 280nm).
Write equilibrium equations for its
three ionizations and assign the
proper pKas for each ionization.
Show net charges.(10%)
LIPIDS TUTORIAL QUESTIONS
Questions 1-10 are single answer MCQs. Choose the single best answer.
Which of the following statements correctly completes the sentence: Triacylglycerols.?
are more slowly mobilized than carbohydrates to provide energy
BIOL 2164 PRINCIPLES OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
LAB 2 PLASMID DNA EXTRACTION & DNA QUANTIFICATION, PURITY
DETERMINATION AND PCR AMPLIFICATION
Objectives:1. To isolate plasmid DNA contained in bacterial cells
2. To measure the concentration of nucleic acids vi