Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid-base Imbalance
Fluids make up 60% of body weight of an adult. Allow transport of oxygen and nutrients to
cells and carry carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells. Provide a medium in which chemical
Immune Disorders (AIDS)
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Remember B cells make antibodies
Immunodeficiency can be defined as failure of the immune or inflammatory response to
Classification of Immunodeficiency States
Patho Test 3
BLOOD,LYMPH, CARDIO, RESP, SHOCK?
_ major cause of death _ in North America.
Common heart diseases include _CAD (coronary artery disease), ANGINA, Myocardial
infarction, congenital heart disord
Pneumonia may be a _primary acute infection, or secondary (i.e. aspiration)
Pneumonia is a risk following aspiration or inflammation in the lung, when fluids pool or defense
mechanisms such as cilia are reduced. I
Introduction to Pathophysiology
What is Health?
Normal values occur within a range of values and may vary
depending on technology used for measurement.
Adjustments caused by the following:
Urinary Tract Infections
Urine-excellent medium for growth of microorganisms.
Cystiti (bladder) and urethritis are considered infections of the lower urinary tract,
whereas pyelonephritis is an upper tract infection.
Traumatic insult to the brain capable of producing physical, intellectual, emotional changes.
Approximately 450,000 head injuries requiring hospitalization per year in Canada.
Males 15 - 24
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Antibodies are a specific class of proteins termed immunoglobulins.
Antibodies bind to the specific matching antigen, destroying it.
This specificity of antigen for antibody, is a significant factor in the development of immun
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology: the study of _functional and physiological changes in the body that result
from disease processes_
Disease development, and the associated changes to normal anatomy and physiology may
Chapter 6: Infection
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Microbiology is the branch of biology that studies microorganisms. These microorganisms
include protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
Microorganisms are usually single cells. Sometimes microorganisms are called Microbes
Chapter 9 Musculoskeletal Disorders
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A fracture is _a break in the ridged continuity of bone_
Fractures are classified in several ways:
A complete fracture occurs when the bone is broken to _into two or more separ
D i s o r d e r s o f t h e L y m p h a ti c S y s t e m
Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms involving lymphocyte proliferation in the lymph nodes.
The two main disorders, _hodgkin's lymphoma hodgkin's lymphoma_
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Anemias cause a _Reduction in Oxygen Transport_ due to a decrease in
Low hemoglobin may result from _decreased production of haemoglobin, a decease in
number of erythrocytes, or
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iliac crest, sacrum,
spinous processes of
The two thyroid hormones, _thyroxine (T4) and triodothyronanine (T3)_The 3 and for referes to
the number of iodine molecules bound_, are secreted by the thyroid gland in response
to hypothalamic-pituitary secretion of thyroid-stimulating
C h a p t e r 7 G e n e ti c a n d C o n g e n i t a l D i s o r d e r s
Any abnormal condition which is present at birth or shortly after birth
The functioning of the human body at the cellular level is deter
Inflammation and Healing
Defense Mechanisms in the Body
Normal Capillary Exchange Versus
Chemical Mediators in the Inflammatory
The Course of Fever
Changes in the Blood
Course of Inflammation
G l a u c o m a a n d Mnire's Syndrome
Glaucoma results from increased intraocular pressure caused by an excessive accumulation
of aqueous humor.
Narrow-angle glaucoma occurs when the angle between the cornea and the iris
Insulin and Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is caused by _a defect of insulin secretion from the beta cells_ in
the islets of Langerhans or by the lack of response by cells to insulin (insulin resistance).
Deficient insulin results in
What does the liver do: detoxifying content in the portal vein
Hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver
What does the liver do. Store glycogen (that breaks into glucose)
Stores iron, stores vitamins, detoxifies many things (ex. a
HEAD INJURIES- 10
SPINAL INJURIES- 6
Benign and Malignant Tumors
A neoplasm/tumor is a cellular growth that does not respond to normal body controls. .
Spinal Cord Injury
Damage to the spinal cord - _temporary or permanent _
Nerves in the spinal cord _do not undergo mitosis. Axonal regrowth can occur (if damage is
not to sever or close to the nerve body)_
Laceration of nerve tissue by bone fragme
C h a p t e r 5 : Inflammation and Healing
First line of defense
Second line of defense
Third line of defense
Specific, consists of antibodies, and cell mediated immunit