Chapter 2 Psychology Textbook Notes
Qualitative Research Method: to measure something relating to, measuring, or measured by the
quality of something
Based on narrative experiences
Quantitative Research Method: to measure something
THE COMMON SENSE QUIZ
Answer the following questions, each of which is based on psychological research.
1. Suppose an authority figure asks college students to administer near-lethal
electrical shocks to another student who has not harmed them in any way.
PSY1700 Chapter 2: Biology and Behavior
What are Neurons?
o Neurons (specialized cells) for thoughts, feelings and behavior
o 3 types
Relay messages from sense organs and receptors to
brain and spinal cord
o Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, s
Psychology study of behavior and mental processes; science b.c uses scientific
method, minimize bias, preconceptions, personal beliefs and emotions
Scientific method orderly, systematic procedures that scientists follow in acquiring
The Story of Psychology
Motivation- factors that direct and energize the behaviour of
humans and other organisms
Incentive Motivation- theory that motivation stems from the desire
to obtain valued goods/incentives
Cognitive Motivation- theory that motivation is product
ID: The raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole
purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to
hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.
Ego: The part of the personality that provides that provides a buffer
Need for Power- tendency to seek impact, control or influence over
other people and been seen as a powerful individual.
Emotion- feeling that generally have both physiological and
cognitive elements and influence behaviour.
James-Lang theory of Emotion- b
Uninvolved Parents Parents who show little interest in their
children and are emotionally detached.
Temperament Basic, Innate disposition.
Psychosocial Development Development of individuals
interactions and understanding of each other and
understanding of the world changes as a function of age and
Sensorimotor age - from birth to age 2 where a child has little
Object permanence - the awareness that objects- and peoplecontinue to exist even out of sight.
Chromosomes rod-shaped structures that contain all basic
Genes parts of the chromosomes through which genetic
information is transmitted.
Zygote new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm.
Embryo developed zygote that has a h
Self-Actualization A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize
their highest potential, each in his or her own unique way.
Unconditional positive regard An attitude of acceptance and
respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says
DSM-IV- American Psychiatric Association, used to diagnose and
classify abnormal behaviour
Anxiety Disorder- occurrence of anxiety without an external cause
affecting daily functioning
Phobias- intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations
Genital stage: According to Freud, the period between puberty and
death, marked by mature sexual behavior (that is, sexual
Defence mechanisms: in Freudian theory, unconscious strategies
that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the sou