4. Bonds Valuation
Bond Characteristics
Face or par value
Coupon rate
p
annual coupon payments ($)
l
face value
Coupon rate
Zero coupon bond
Invoice price
actual price paid when buying the bond
Invoice price = quoted price + accrued interest
Indentur
The Timing Problem
IRR and PI Problem Cases: Borrowing vs. Lending
Consider the following two projects.
Evaluate with IRR and PI given a hurdle rate of 20%
For borrowing projects, the IRR rule must be reversed:
accept the project if the IRRhurdle rate
7.
The Capital Asset Pricing Model
Capital Asset Pricing Model
(CAPM)
Sharpe, Lintner and Mossin are researchers credited with
its development (in the mid 1960s)
CAPM is an extension of the Markowitz portfolio selection
model
Derived using principles o
11. Option-Pricing Models
Option Values
Intrinsic value
profit that could be made if the option was
immediately exercised:
Call: IVC =
Put: IVP =
Time value
the difference between the option price and the
intrinsic value:
Call: C - IVC
Put: P - IVP
3.
How Securities are Traded
Types of Markets
Direct search markets
Trading partners must locate each other (search costs)
Consist of thinly traded nonstandard goods with low
y
g
prices
Brokered markets
As trading volume increases, the services of a br
5.
Bonds Duration and
Immunization
Effective Bond Maturity
Consider the following two bonds
Bond A
Year
Cash flow
1
2-10
$1,000
$0.01
1-9
10
$0.01
$ 1,000
Bond B
Year
Cash flow
The stated maturity of
bond A is
bond B is
1
Effective Bond Maturity
(C
2.
Markets and Instruments
Markets and Instruments
Money Market
Short-term instruments
Calculating yields
Capital Market
Long-term instruments
1
Money Market Instruments
Treasury bills
Government raises funds by issuing T-bills
Sold at a discount to f
1.
The Recent History of
Investing and the
Investment Objective
Short (Recent) History of Investing
The Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression
One-day panic in 1987
The technology bubble in the nineties and
The bear market of the new millennium
The C
Relevant cash flows
The main principles behind which cash flows to
include in capital budgeting analysis are as follows:
1. Only include cash flows that change as a result of
the project being analyzed. Include all cash flows
that are impacted by the pro
UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA
I. H. ASPER SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE
FIN 3410 - INVESTMENTS
FALL 2015
Sections A01 and A02
Instructor:
Course Website:
Class Time:
Class Room:
Office:
Office Hours:
Telephone:
E-mail:
Dr. Usha R. Mitto
CHAPTER3
TRADINGONSECURITIESMARKETS
1.
Individual solutionanswers to this problem will vary.
2. a.
In principle, potential losses are unbounded, growing directly with increases in
the price of Alcan.
b.
If the stop-buy order can be filled at $78, the maxi
CHAPTER1
THEINVESTMENTENVIRONMENT
1. a. No. The increase in price did not add to the productive capacity of the
economy.
b. Yes, the value of the equity held in these assets has doubled.
c. Future homeowners as a whole are worse off, since mortgage liabil
CHAPTER6
OPTIMALRISKYPORTFOLIOS
1. (a) for sure.
(b) and (d) are firm-specific.
(c) and (e) can be either firm-specific or due to marketwide factors.
2. (a) and (c) enter into the portfolio variance and thus affect portfolio risk.
3. (a) is true by defini
CHAPTER4
RETURNANDRISK:ANALYZINGTHEHISTORICALRECORD
1. Your holding period return for the next year on the money market fund depends
on what 30-day interest rates will be each month when it is time to roll over
maturing securities. The one-year savings de
CHAPTER 5
CAPITAL ALLOCATION TO RISKY ASSETS
1. a. The expected cash flow is (.5 $70,000) + (.5 200,000) = $135,000.
With a risk premium of 8 percent over the risk-free rate of 6 percent, the
required rate of return is 14 percent. Therefore, the present v
6.
Risk Aversion and Introduction
to Modern Portfolio Theory
Optimal Capital Allocation
We seek to optimally allocate investment
funds between safe and risky assets
We use:
T-bills to proxy the risk free asset
a stock portfolio as a risky asset
Examine
10.
Option Strategies and Payoffs
Market Price and Exercise
Price Relationships
In the Money an immediate exercise of the
option would be profitable
Call: S > X
Put: S < X
Out of the Money an immediate exercise of
the option would not be profitable
C
8. Factor Models
Shortfalls of the Mean-variance
theory & CAPM
The estimation procedure is a formidable task.
Security analysis for n assets, involves
estimating:
n expected returns,
n variances terms
n(n-1)/2 covariance terms
With roughly 4 000 TSX
NPV Profile where are the IRR's?
Calculation problems what did we find?
Assume a hurdle rate of 15%.
Evaluate using IRR.
IRRA=?
7.934117563%
Or
48.47613884%
IRRB=?
Does not exist
No or Multiple IRR Problem What to do?
IRR cannot be used in this circums
Project Externalities Example
Suppose McDonalds is considering adding sushi to its
menu. The estimated NPV of the sushi project is $20m.
However, closer analysis reveals that some of the sushi
sales will be to customers normally purchasing Big Macs.
McDo
Net Working Capital: Example
Increased NWC requirements due to the new project:
A check on NWC changes
Note: over the entire life of a project, the cash
flows due to changes in net working capital
normally sum up to zero.
This is because the net working
Risk-Free Interest Rates
A default-free zero-coupon bond that matures on
date n provides a risk-free return over the same period.
Thus, the Law of One Price guarantees that the
risk-free interest rate equals the yield to maturity on
such a bond.
Risk-Fr
Bond Cash Flows, Prices, and Yields
Bond Terminology
Bond Indenture
States the details of the bond
Maturity Date
Final repayment date
Term
The time remaining until the repayment date
Coupon
Promised interest payments
Zero-Coupon Bond
Does not m
CCA Calculations: Example
The cost of a new asset is $1,000.
The CCA rate is 40%.
The corporate tax rate is 20%.
The opportunity cost of capital is 10%.
The following table indicates the calculations of CCA,
UCC, and resulting CCA Tax Shield (savings
Caution: Depreciation vs. CCA
The depreciation amount used for financial
reporting and GAAP is likely not the amount used
for tax purposes.
In Canada, capital cost allowance (CCA) replaces
GAAP depreciation for tax purposes.
Thus, to be correct, deprec
Dynamic Behavior of Bond Prices
Discount
A bond is selling at a discount if the price is less than
the face value.
Par
A bond is selling at par if the price is equal to the
face value.
Premium
A bond is selling at a premium if the price is greater
t
Basics of Matrix Algebra
Portfolio Selection
a12
a22
.
.
.
.
.
.
a1N
a2N
.
.
.
.
.
.
aM1 aM2
.
.
.
A=
a11
a21
.
.
.
Estimating the
Efficient Frontier
(Capital Market Line)
Let A denote an MN matrix, such that:
aMN
M N
N
Let B denote an NL matrix, such t