Classification of aggressive behaviours common to food animals
Mother defends young against potential predators. E.g. Ewe with
lamb attacks dog.
Defense of territory:
Animal attacks intruder. E.g. grazing bull attacks man.
The concept of motivation encompasses a variety of factors
that modify the extent and nature of any behavioural response.
At any given moment in time, an animal usually has a range of
behaviours which it could exhibit. What is it that determine
Given the biological roots of both comparative psychology
and ethology, evolution was seen to play an important role in
behavioral origins by both disciplines, though in different
Comparative psychology, strongly influenced by
This is the highest form of learning which does not result from
immediate trial-and-error learning but may be based on
information previously learned by other behavioural activities.
Insight learning is based on advanced perceptual abilit
Learning can be defined as an adaptive change in individual
behaviour as a result of experience. The degree of permanence
of newly acquired learned behaviour patterns depends on
memory storing information gained from the experience.
Innate behavioural patterns or types
Agonistic behaviour can be defined as a group of behavioural
adjustments associated with fighting, which includes attack,
escape, threat, defense and appeasement.
The simplest explanation of the
Brief history of the study of animal behaviour
1. First ethologists (pre-historic humans) studied behavior for practical purposes:
i. Prey behaviour was studied for hunting.
ii. Domestication - dogs, cats, ox, cattle, reindeer, horses, etc.
2. Natural the
Associative learning simply means that an animal learns to associate an
event with a result. There are two types of associative learning:
classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, and instrumental (operant or trialand-error) conditioning.
Comparative Psychology and Ethology
Comparative Psychology and Ethology are both sciences
which study animal behavior, typically non-human
behavior, though both have often studied humans.
Comparative Psychology is a sub-discipline of psychology
Ethogram of agonistic behaviours
An ethogram is a complete catalogue of all behaviour patterns
and vocalization occurring
in a specie.
They are often viewed as non-aggressive, gregarious animals
but do show measurable levels of agonistic behaviou
Motivation and welfare
Welfare is a measure of how well an animal copes with its
environment; If the animal fails to cope or its coping efforts
have detrimental effects on the productivity, then the welfare
of the that animal is poor. Welfare can also be