Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharide units. The
monomeric units of a polysaccharide are usually all the same
(called homopolysaccharides ( polymer of one sugar), though
there are exceptions (called heteropolysaccharides ( more th
The total number of possible stereoisomers of one compound
(n) is dependent on the number of stereogenic centers (c) in the
molecule. The upper limit for the number of possible
stereoisomers is n = 2c. The only monosaccharide without an
Role in disease prevention and treatment
In addition to clinical deficiency diseases such as anemia and
goiter, research indicates that trace minerals play a role in the
development, prevention, and treatment of chronic diseases.
Iron, zinc, copper, and s
Epimers: They are a special case of diastereoisomerism where
there is a difference for one and only one asymmetric center.
e.g. D-glucose and D-mannose; D-glucose and D-galactose are
epimer, is used to designate diastereomers that differ in
Toxicity from excessive dietary intake of major minerals rarely
occurs in healthy
Kidneys that are functioning normally can regulate mineral
concentrations in the
body by excreting the excess amounts in urine.
Toxicity symptoms from
The degree to which the amount of an ingested nutrient is
absorbed and available to the body is called bioavailability.
Mineral bioavailability depends on several factors:
Higher absorption occurs among individuals who are deficien
They are required in small amounts for metabolism and health
and can be classified as fat soluble and water soluble.
Fat soluble - vitamins A,D,E and K
Water soluble - B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, C. etc.
The following are lipid soluble vitamins wi
The only difference between triglycerol and phospholipids is that one
of the hydroxyl
groups of the glycerol is linked to a phosphate.
Steroids are composed of four interconnected carbon rings.
They are soluble in water due to thei
Disaccharides: (2 monosaccharides linked together)
C12H22O11 (note loss of one H2O)
Sucrose (glucose+ fructose)
Lactose (glucose + galactose)
Cellobiose (glucose+ glucose)
Trisaccharides: (3 monosaccharides linked together)
C18H32O16 (note loss of one mor
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PLANT AND ANIMAL
- Plant and Animal bodies consists of:
Organic acids (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, complexes of
lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, Nucleic acids and vitamins)
Inorganic salts (minerals)
These are the essential amino acids, since it is essential to
Mammals do possess the enzymes to synthesize alanine,
asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamine, glycine, proline,
serine, and tyrosine.
These are nonessential amino acids.