The Greek Sophists
Sophist - originally meant anyone who devoted himself to the pursuit of wisdom (sophia - a wise
They were responsible for educating the aristocratic young men. They taught history, social
customs, ethics, etc.
Pericles opens up
Discusses 3 criteria of truth:
a. Every sensation stands absolutely on its own footing as correct experiences of the
natural world. They cannot be refuted by anything including another sensation. On
these sensations all
Plato - The Soul and the Cosmos
The soul has its own proper existence, independent of the body. It is a thing-in-itself,
having its own existence. The soul is super-sensible, and more like the unchanging and eternal
than the body which is ever ch
Saint Augustines Theory of Creation and Ethics
When God created the world he did so based off of his Ideas and he created both
intelligently and freely. It doesn't just emanate from the One like Plotinus had it. Since God
is the fullness of exist
Zeno and Stoicism
Zeno was born in Citum on the isle of Cyprus. He is regarded as the first stoic. Only fragments
survive of his original texts.
Stoics divided the sciences into 3 parts, namely logic, natural philosophy, and ethics.
ST THOMAS AQUINAS
Natural reason and knowledge of God
Faith is necessary for an understanding of God - we can only reason to a few things
God from Motion and Objections
It is evident that some things are in motion
we must reach a first unmoved mover as ev
Duns Scotus Philosophy
All humans share a universal human nature that accounts for their distinctive human
reality. The problem arises: What makes each of these human beings a distinct individual
like Plato or Socrates?
Scotus believes tha
St. Augustine was born in Tagasta (Hippo) in 354 C.E. He was not originally a Christian, but
instead went through many phases in his quest for knowledge and happiness becoming a
Manichean at one point as well. For over a thousand years he is
Aristotles Idea of Virtue and Habituation
1. What is Virtue?
a. Virtue is described as a state of character that involves a steady disposition to
choose the mean between two extremes, namely excess and deficiency, whenever
such a choice is made in relatio
Leucippus and Democritus
General agreement that the atomic theory was formulated by Leucippus and more fully
developed by Democritus.
The basic stuff is an infinite multiplicity of atoms.
Atoms are the smallest particles. These particles cannot b
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Minoan, Mycenaeans and the Greeks: The archaic AGE
The pre-Socratics developed the nature of the physical world!