A. Phases and Forces
A physically distinct homogeneous part of a system
2. Condensed phases (condensed states)
Solids and liquids.
3. Phase changes
Example: solid liquid
4. Intramolecular forces (bonding forces)
A. The Solubility-Product Constant (Ksp)
1. Saturated solution
Most solutes have a limited solubility in a particular
solvent. Add more than this amount, and some solute
In a saturated solution at a particular temp
How can we harness this energy?!
Electrochemistry: study of the relationship between
chemical change and electrical work.
Electrochemical cells: Use an oxidation-reduction (redox)
reaction to produce or use electri
ACID-BASE BUFFERS AND TITRATIONS
A. Acid-Base Buffer Systems
An acid-base buffer is a solution that lessens changes
in [H3O+] resulting from the addition of acid or base.
2. Components of an acid-base buffer
A buffer must contain an
3000 yrs of fresh dry
90 yrs of New York acid rain
A. Acids and Bases in History
React with active metals to produce hydrogen gas
Turn indicators characteristic colors
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY REACTIONS
Stereochemistry is concerned with the structures of
molecules in three dimensions.
1. Chiral objects
A chiral object is an object that possesses the property of
A chiral object is one that cann
A. Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Changes
1. Spontaneous change
Occurs by itself, without an ongoing input of energy
from outside the system.
May need a push to get started.
Once process begins, it continues without external aid
Chemical kinetics: study of reaction rates, the changes
in concentrations of reactants/products with time.
Reactions have a wide range of rates.
A. Factors That Influence Reaction Rate
Each reaction has its own characteristi